Notice Board

Fundamentals of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Fundamentals of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 3(2+1)


  1. Importance of Biochemistry. 
  2. Properties of Water, pH and Buffer. Carbohydrate: Importance and classification. 
  3. Structures of Monosaccharides, Reducing and oxidizing properties of Monosaccharides, Mutarotation; 
  4. Structure of Disaccharides and Poly saccharides. 
  5. Lipid: Importance and classification; Structures and properties of fatty acids; storage lipids and membrane lipids. 
  6. Proteins: Importance of proteins and classification; Structures, titration and zwitterions nature of amino acids; Structural organization of proteins. 
  7. Enzymes: General properties; Classification; Mechanism of action; 
  8. Michaelis & Menten and Line Weaver Burk equation & plots; 
  9. Introduction to allosteric enzymes. 
  10. Nucleic acids: Importance and classification; 
  11. Structure of Nucleotides, A, B & Z DNA; 
  12. RNA: Types and Secondary & Tertiary structure. 
  13. Metabolism of carbohydrates: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Glyoxylate cycle, Electron transport chain.
  14. Metabolism of lipids: Beta oxidation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids. 
  15. Concepts and applications of plant biotechnology: Scope, organ culture, embryo culture, cell suspension culture, callus culture, anther culture, pollen culture and ovule culture and their applications; 
  16. Micro-propagation methods; 
  17. Organogenesis and embryogenesis, 
  18. Synthetic seeds and their significance; 
  19. Embryo rescue and its significance; 
  20. somatic hybridization and cybrids; 
  21. Somaclonal variation and its use in crop improvement; cryo-preservation; 
  22. Introduction to recombinant DNA methods: physical (Gene gun method), chemical (PEG mediated) and Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer methods; 
  23. Transgenics and its importance in crop improvement; 
  24. PCR techniques and its applications; RFLP, RAPD, SSR; 
  25. Marker Assisted Breeding in crop improvement; 
  26. Biotechnology regulations.


  1. Preparation of solution, pH & buffers, Qualitative tests of carbohydrates and amino acids. 
  2. Quantitative estimation of glucose/ proteins. 
  3. Titration methods for estimation of amino acids/lipids, Effect of pH, temperature and substrate concentration on enzyme action, Paper chromatography/ TLC demonstration for separation of amino acids/ Monosaccharides. 
  4. Sterilization techniques. 
  5. Composition of various tissue culture media and preparation of stock solutions for MS nutrient medium. 
  6. Callus induction from various explants.
  7.  Micro-propagation, hardening and acclimatization. 
  8. Demonstration on isolation of DNA. 
  9. Demonstration of gel electrophoresis techniques and DNA finger printing.

Agricultural Microbiology

Agricultural Microbiology 2(1+1) 

  1. Introduction. 
  2. Microbial world: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. 
  3. Bacteria: cell structure, chemoautotrophy, photoautotrophs, growth. 
  4. Bacterial genetics: Genetic recombination transformation, conjugation and transduction, plasmids, transposon. 
  5. Role of microbes in soil fertility and crop production: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur cycles. 
  6. Biological nitrogen fixation- symbiotic, associative and asymbiotic. Azolla, blue green algae and mycorrhiza. 
  7. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere. 
  8. Microbes in human welfare: silage production, biofertilizers, biopesticides, biofuel production and biodegradation of agro-waste. 


  1. Introduction to microbiology laboratory and its equipments; 
  2. Microscope- parts, principles of microscopy, resolving power and numerical aperture. Methods of sterilization. 
  3. Nutritional media and their preparations. 
  4. Enumeration of microbial population in soil- bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes. 
  5. Methods of isolation and purification of microbial cultures. 
  6. Isolation of Rhizobium from legume root nodule. 
  7. Isolation of Azotobacter from soil. 
  8. Isolation of Azospirillum from roots. 
  9. Isolation of BGA. Staining and microscopic examination of microbes.

Fundamentals of Crop Physiology

Fundamentals of Crop Physiology 2(1+1) 

  1. Introduction to crop physiology and its importance in Agriculture; 
  2. Plant cell: an Overview; 
  3. Diffusion and osmosis; 
  4. Absorption of water, transpiration and Stomatal Physiology; 
  5. Mineral nutrition of Plants: 
  6. Functions and deficiency symptoms of nutrients, nutrient uptake mechanisms; 
  7. Photosynthesis: Light and Dark reactions, 
  8. C3, C4 and CAM plants; 
  9. Respiration: Glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain; 
  10. Fat Metabolism: Fatty acid synthesis and Breakdown; 
  11. Plant growth regulators: 
  12. Physiological roles and agricultural uses, 
  13. Physiological aspects of growth and development of major crops: 
  14. Growth analysis, Role of Physiological growth parameters in crop productivity. 


  1. Study of plant cells, structure and distribution of stomata, imbibitions, osmosis, plasmolysis, 
  2. measurement of root pressure, 
  3. rate of transpiration, 
  4. Separation of photosynthetic pigments through paper chromatography, 
  5. Rate of transpiration, photosynthesis, respiration, tissue test for mineral nutrients, 
  6. estimation of relative water content, 
  7. Measurement of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation by Infra Red Gas Analyser (IRGA).

Post-harvest Management and Value Addition of Fruits and Vegetables 2(1+1)

Post-harvest Management and Value Addition of Fruits and Vegetables 2(1+1)

  1. Importance of post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables, extent and possible causes of post harvest losses; 
  2. Pre-harvest factors affecting postharvest quality, maturity, ripening and changes occurring during ripening; 
  3. Respiration and factors affecting respiration rate; 
  4. Harvesting and field handling; Storage (ZECC, cold storage, CA, MA, and hypobaric); Value addition concept;
  5. Principles and methods of preservation; Intermediate moisture food- Jam, jelly, marmalade,
  6. preserve, candy – Concepts and Standards; Fermented and non-fermented beverages. Tomato
  7. products- Concepts and Standards; Drying/ Dehydration of fruits and vegetables – Concept and
  8. methods, osmotic drying. Canning -– Concepts and Standards, packaging of products.


  1. Applications of different types of packaging, containers for shelf life extension. 
  2. Effect of temperature on shelf life and quality of produce. 
  3. Demonstration of chilling and freezing injury in vegetables and fruits. 
  4. Extraction and preservation of pulps and juices. 
  5. Preparation of jam, jelly, RTS, nectar, squash, osmotically dried products, fruit bar and candy and tomato products, canned products. 
  6. Quality evaluation of products -- physico-chemical and sensory. 
  7. Visit to the processing unit/ industry.

Production Technology for Ornamental Crops, MAPs and Landscaping

Production Technology for Ornamental Crops, MAPs and Landscaping 2 (1+1)

  1. Importance and scope of ornamental crops, medicinal and aromatic plants and landscaping.
  2. Principles of landscaping. 
  3. Landscape uses of trees, shrubs and climbers. 
  4. Production technology of important cut flowers like rose, gerbera, carnation, lilium and orchids under protected conditions and gladiolus, tuberose, chrysanthemum under open conditions. 
  5. Package of practices for loose flowers like marigold and jasmine under open conditions. 
  6. Production technology of important medicinal plants like ashwagandha, asparagus, aloe, costus, Cinnamomum, periwinkle, isabgol and aromatic plants like mint, lemongrass, citronella, palmarosa, ocimum, rose, geranium, vetiver. 
  7. Processing and value addition in ornamental crops and MAPs produce.


  1. Identification of Ornamental plants. 
  2. Identification of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 
  3. Nursery bed preparation and seed sowing. 
  4. Training and pruning of Ornamental plants. 
  5. Planning and layout of garden. Bed preparation and planting of MAP. 
  6. Protected structures – care and maintenance.
  7. Intercultural operations in flowers and MAP. 
  8. Harvesting and post harvest handling of cut and loose flowers. 
  9. Processing of MAP. 
  10. Visit to the commercial flower/MAP unit.

Production Technology for Vegetable and Spices

Production Technology for Vegetable and Spices 2 (1+1)

  1. Importance of vegetables & spices in human nutrition and national economy, kitchen
  2. gardening, brief about origin, area, climate, soil, improved varieties and cultivation practices such
  3. as time of sowing, transplanting techniques, planting distance, fertilizer requirements, irrigation,
  4. weed management, harvesting and yield, physiological disorders, of important vegetable and
  5. spices (Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli, Capsicum, Cucumber, Melons, Gourds, Pumpkin, French bean,
  6. Peas; Cole crops such as Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knol-khol; Bulb crops such as Onion, Garlic; Root
  7. crops such as Carrot, Raddish, Beetroot; Tuber crops such as Potato; Leafy vegetables such as
  8. Amaranth, Palak. Perennial vegetables).


  1. Identification of vegetables & spice crops and their seeds. 
  2. Nursery raising. 
  3. Direct seed sowing and transplanting. 
  4. Study of morphological characters of different vegetables & spices. 
  5. Fertilizers applications. 
  6. Harvesting & preparation for the market. 
  7. Economics of vegetables and spices cultivation.

Production Technology for Fruit and Plantation Crops

Production Technology for Fruit and Plantation Crops 2(1+1)

  1. Importance and scope of fruit and plantation crop industry in India; 
  2. Importance of rootstocks;
  3. Production technologies for the cultivation of major fruits-mango, banana, citrus, grape, guava,
  4. litchi, papaya, sapota, apple, pear, peach, walnut, almond and; minor fruits- date, ber, pineapple,
  5. pomegranate, jackfruit, strawberry, plantation crops-coconut, arecanut, cashew, tea, coffee &
  6. rubber.


  1. Seed propagation. 
  2. Scarification and stratification of seeds. 
  3. Propagation methods for fruit and plantation crops. 
  4. Description and identification of fruit. 
  5. Preparation of plant bio regulators and their uses, 
  6. Important pests, diseases and physiological disorders of above fruit and plantation crops, 
  7. Visit to commercial orchards.

Fundamentals of Horticulture

Fundamentals of Horticulture (NEW) 2(1+1)

  1. Horticulture - Its definition and branches, importance and scope; horticultural and botanical classification; climate and soil for horticultural crops; 
  2. Plant propagation-methods and propagating structures; 
  3. Seed dormancy, Seed germination, principles of orchard establishment; 
  4. Principles and methods of training and pruning, juvenility and flower bud differentiation; unfruitfulness;
  5. pollination, pollinizers and pollinators; fertilization and parthenocarpy; medicinal and aromatic
  6. plants; importance of plant bio-regulators in horticulture. 
  7. Irrigation – methods, Fertilizer application in horticultural crops.


  1. Identification of garden tools. 
  2. Identification of horticultural crops. 
  3. Preparation of seed bed/nursery bed. 
  4. Practice of sexual and asexual methods of propagation including micro-propagation.
  5. Layout and planting of orchards. 
  6. Training and pruning of fruit trees. 
  7. Preparation of potting mixture. Fertilizer application in different crops. 
  8. Visits to commercial nurseries/orchards.

Fundamentals of Soil Science

Fundamentals of Soil Science 3(2+1) 

  1. Soil as a natural body, 
  2. Pedological and edaphological concepts of soil; 
  3. Soil genesis: soil forming rocks and minerals; weathering, processes and factors of soil formation; 
  4. Soil Profile, components of soil; 
  5. Soil physical properties: soil-texture, structure, density and porosity, soil colour, consistency and plasticity; 
  6. Elementary knowledge of soil taxonomy classification and soils of India; 
  7. Soil water retention, movement and availability; 
  8. Soil air, composition, gaseous exchange, problem and plant
  9. Soil temperature; source, amount and flow of heat in soil; effect on plant growth, 
  10. Soil reaction-pH, soil acidity and alkalinity, buffering, effect of pH on nutrient availability; 
  11. Soil colloids - inorganic and organic; silicate clays: constitution and properties; sources of charge;
  12. Ion exchange, cation exchange capacity, base saturation; 
  13. Soil organic matter: composition, properties and its influence on soil properties; humic substances - nature and properties; 
  14. Soil organisms: macro and micro organisms, their beneficial and harmful effects; 
  15. Soil pollution - behaviour of pesticides and inorganic contaminants, prevention and mitigation of soil pollution. 


  1. Study of soil profile in field. 
  2. Study of soil sampling tools, 
  3. Collection of representative soil sample, its processing and storage. 
  4. Study of soil forming rocks and minerals. 
  5. Determination of soil density, moisture content and porosity. 
  6. Determination of soil texture by feel and Bouyoucos Methods. 
  7. Studies of capillary rise phenomenon of water in soil column and water movement in soil. 
  8. Determination of soil pH and electrical conductivity. 
  9. Determination of cation exchange capacity of soil. Study of soil map. 
  10. Determination of soil colour. 
  11. Demonstration of heat transfer in soil. 
  12. Estimation of organic matter content of soil.

Manures, Fertilizers and Soil Fertility Management

Manures, Fertilizers and Soil Fertility Management 3(2+1) 

  1. Introduction and importance of organic manures, properties and methods of preparation of bulky and concentrated manures. 
  2. Green/leaf manuring. 
  3. Fertilizer recommendation approaches. 
  4. Integrated nutrient management. 
  5. Chemical fertilizers: classification, composition and properties of major nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic fertilizers, secondary & micronutrient fertilizers, Complex fertilizers, nano fertilizers 
  6. Soil amendments, 
  7. Fertilizer Storage, Fertilizer Control Order. 
  8. History of soil fertility and plant nutrition. criteria of essentiality. role, deficiency and toxicity symptoms of essential plant nutrients, 
  9. Mechanisms of nutrient transport to plants, factors affecting nutrient availability to plants. 
  10. Chemistry of soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur and micronutrients. 
  11. Soil fertility evaluation, 
  12. Soil testing. 
  13. Critical levels of different nutrients in soil. 
  14. Forms of nutrients in soil, plant analysis, rapid plant tissue tests. 
  15. Indicator plants. 
  16. Methods of fertilizer recommendations to crops. 
  17. Factor influencing nutrient use efficiency (NUE), methods of application under rainfed and irrigated conditions. 


  1. Introduction of analytical instruments and their principles, calibration and applications, 
  2. Colorimetry and flame photometry. 
  3. Estimation of soil organic carbon, 
  4. Estimation of alkaline hydrolysable N in soils. 
  5. Estimation of soil extractable P in soils. 
  6. Estimation of exchangeable K; Ca and Mg in soils . 
  7. Estimation of soil extractable S in soils. 
  8. Estimation of DTPA extractable Zn in soils. 
  9. Estimation of N in plants. 
  10. Estimation of P in plants. 
  11. Estimation of K in plants. 
  12. Estimation of S in plants.

Problematic Soils and their Management

Problematic Soils and their Management (New) 2(2+0) 

  1. Soil quality and health, 
  2. Distribution of waste land and problem soils in India. 
  3. Their categorization based on properties. 
  4. Reclamation and management of Saline and sodic soils, 
  5. Acid soils, Acid Sulphate soils, Eroded and Compacted soils, Flooded soils, Polluted soils. 
  6. Irrigation water – quality and standards, utilization of saline water in agriculture. 
  7. Remote sensing and GIS in diagnosis and management of problem soils. 
  8. Multipurpose tree species, bio remediation through MPTs of soils, 
  9. Land capability and classification,
  10. Land suitability classification. 
  11. Problematic soils under different Agro-ecosystems.

Rainfed Agriculture and Watershed Management

Rainfed Agriculture and Watershed Management – (New) 2(1+1)


  1. Rainfed agriculture: Introduction, types, 
  2. History of rainfed agriculture and watershed in India; 
  3. Problems and prospects of rainfed agriculture in India
  4. Soil and climatic conditions prevalent in rainfed areas
  5. Soil and water conservation techniques
  6. Drought: types, effect of water deficit on physio-morphological characteristics of the plants, 
  7. Crop adaptation and mitigation to drought; 
  8. Water harvesting: importance, its techniques, 
  9. Efficient utilization of water through soil and crop management practices,
  10. Management of crops in rainfed areas, 
  11. Contingent crop planning for aberrant weather conditions, 
  12. Concept, objective, principles and components of watershed management, 
  13. Factors affecting watershed management. 


  1. Studies on climate classification, 
  2. Studies on rainfall pattern in rainfed areas of the country and pattern of onset and withdrawal of monsoons. 
  3. Studies on cropping pattern of different rainfed areas in the country and demarcation of rainfed areas on map of India. 
  4. Interpretation of meteorological data and scheduling of supplemental irrigation on the basis of evapo-transpiration demand of crops. 
  5. Critical analysis of rainfall and possible drought period in the country, effective rainfall and its calculation. 
  6. Studies on cultural practices for mitigating moisture stress. 
  7. Characterization and delineation of model watershed. 
  8. Field demonstration on soil & moisture conservation measures. 
  9. Field demonstration on construction of water harvesting structures. 
  10. Visit to the rainfed research station/watershed.

Geoinformatics, Nano-technology and Precision Farming

Geoinformatics, Nano-technology and Precision Farming 2(1+1)

  1. Precision agriculture: concepts and techniques; their issues and concerns for Indian agriculture
  2. Geo-informatics- definition, concepts, tool and techniques,their use in Precision Agriculture. 
  3. Crop discrimination and Yield monitoring, soil mapping, fertilizer recommendation using geospatial technologies, Spatial data and their management in GIS
  4. Remote sensing concepts and application in agriculture
  5. Image processing and interpretation
  6. Global positioning system (GPS), components and its functions
  7. Introduction to crop Simulation Models and their uses for optimization of Agricultural Inputs
  8. STCR approach for precision agriculture
  9. Nanotechnology, definition, concepts and techniques,
  10. Brief introduction about nanoscale effects, nano-particles, nano-pesticides, nano-fertilizers, nano-sensors, 
  11. Use of nanotechnology in seed, water, fertilizer, plant protection for scaling-up farm productivity


  1. Introduction to GIS software, spatial data creation and editing. 
  2. Introduction to image processing software. 
  3. Visual and digital interpretation of remote sensing images. 
  4. Generation of spectral profiles of different objects. 
  5. Supervised and unsupervised classification and acreage estimation.
  6. Multispectral remote sensing for soil mapping. 
  7. Creation of thematic layers of soil fertility based on GIS. 
  8. Creation of productivity and management zones. 
  9. Fertilizer recommendations based on VRT and STCR techniques. 
  10. Crop stress (biotic/abiotic) monitoring using geospatial technology. 
  11. Use of GPS for agricultural survey. 
  12. Formulation, characterization and applications of nanoparticles in agriculture. 
  13. Projects formulation and execution related to precision farming.

Principles of Organic Farming

Principles of Organic Farming 2(1+1)


  1. Organic farming, principles and its scope in India
  2. Initiatives taken by Government (central/ state), NGOs and other organizations for promotion of organic agriculture
  3. Organic ecosystem and their concepts
  4. Organic nutrient resources and its fortification
  5. Restrictions to nutrient use in organic farming
  6. Choice of crops and varieties in organic farming
  7. Fundamentals of insect, pest, disease and weed management under organic mode of production 
  8. Operational structure of NPOP
  9. Certification process and standards of organic farming
  10. Processing, leveling, economic considerations and viability, marketing and export potential of organic products.


  1. Visit of organic farms to study the various components and their utilization
  2. Preparation of enrich compost, vermicompost, bio-fertilizers/bio-inoculants and their quality analysis
  3. Indigenous technology knowledge (ITK) for nutrient, insect, pest disease and weed management
  4. Cost of organic production system
  5. Post harvest management
  6. Quality aspect, grading, packaging and handling.

Practical Crop Production-II (Rabi Crops)

Practical Crop Production-II (Rabi Crops) 2(0+2) 


  • Crop planning, 
  • Raising field crops in multiple cropping systems: 
  1. Field preparation, 
  2. Seed, 
  3. Treatment, 
  4. Nursery raising, 
  5. Sowing, nutrient, 
  6. Water and Weed management 
  7. Management of insect-pests diseases of crops, 
  8. Harvesting, 
  9. Threshing, 
  10. Drying winnowing,
  11. Storage and marketing of produce. 
  12. The emphasis will be given to
  13. Seed production, 
  14. Mechanization, 
  15. resource conservation and 
  16. integrated nutrient, insect-pest and disease management technologies. 
  • Preparation of balance sheet including cost of cultivation, net returns per student as well as per team of 8-10 students.

Practical Crop Production-I (Kharif Crops)

Practical Crop Production-I (Kharif Crops) 2(0+2)

  1. Crop planning, 
  2. Raising field crops in multiple cropping systems: 
  3. Field preparation, 
  4. Seed, 
  5. Treatment, 
  6. Nursery raising, 
  7. Sowing, 
  8. Nutrient, Water and Weed management 
  9. Management of insect-pests diseases of crops, 
  10. Harvesting, 
  11. Threshing, 
  12. Drying winnowing,
  13. Storage and Marketing of produce. 
  14. The emphasis will be given to 
  15. Seed production, Mechanization, resource conservation
  16. Integrated nutrient, insect-pest and disease management technologies. 
  17. Preparation of balance sheet including 
  18. cost of cultivation, 
  19. net returns per student as well as per team of 8-10 students.

Farming System and Sustainable Agriculture

Farming System and Sustainable Agriculture 1(1+0)

  1. Farming System-scope, importance, and concept, Types and systems of farming system and factors affecting types of farming, 
  2. Farming system components and their maintenance,
  3. Cropping system and pattern, multiple cropping system, 
  4. Efficient cropping system and their evaluation, 
  5. Allied enterprises and their importance, 
  6. Tools for determining production and efficiencies in cropping and farming system
  7. Sustainable agriculture - problems and its impact on agriculture, indicators of sustainability, adaptation and mitigation, 
  8. Conservation agriculture strategies in agriculture, 
  9. HEIA, LEIA and LEISA and its techniques for sustainability, 
  10. Integrated farming system-historical background, objectives and characteristics, components of IFS and its advantages, 
  11. Site specific development of IFS model for different agro-climatic zones, resource use efficiency and optimization techniques, 
  12. Resource cycling and flow of energy in different farming system, farming system and environment, 
  13. Visit of IFS model in different agro-climatic zones of nearby states University/ institutes and farmers field.

Crop Production Technology-II (Rabi crops)

Crop Production Technology-II (Rabi crops) 2(1+1)


  • Origin, geographical distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirements, varieties, cultural practices and yield of Rabi crops; 
  1. Cereals –wheat and barley, 
  2. Pulses-chickpea, lentil, peas, 
  3. Oilseeds-rapeseed, mustard and sunflower; 
  4. Sugar crops-sugarcane; 
  5. Medicinal and Aromatic crops-mentha, lemongrass and citronella, 
  6. Forage crops-berseem, lucerne and oat.


  • Sowing methods of wheat and sugarcane, 
  • Identification of weeds in rabi season crops, 
  • Study of morphological characteristics of rabi crops, 
  • Study of yield contributing characters of rabi season crops, 
  • Yield and juice quality analysis of sugarcane, 
  • Study of important agronomic experiments of rabi crops at experimental farms. 
  • Study of rabi forage experiments, oil extraction of medicinal crops, 
  • Visit to research stations of related crops.

Crop Production Technology-I (Kharif Crops)

Crop Production Technology-I (Kharif Crops) 2(1+1)


  1. Origin, geographical distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirements, varieties, cultural practices and yield of Kharif crops. 
  2. Cereals - 
  3. rice, 
  4. maize, 
  5. sorghum, 
  6. pearl millet and 
  7. finger millet, 
  8. Pulses - pigeonpea, mungbean and urdbean; oilseeds- groundnut, and soybean;
  9. Fibre crops- cotton & jute; 
  10. Forage crops -sorghum, cowpea, cluster bean and napier.


  1. Rice nursery preparation, 
  2. Transplanting of rice, 
  3. Sowing of soybean,pigeonpea and mungbean, maize, groundnut and cotton, 
  4. Effect of seed size on germination and seedling vigour of kharif season crops, 
  5. Effect of sowing depth on germination of kharif crops, 
  6. Identification of weeds in kharif season crops,
  7. Top dressing and foliar feeding of nutrients, 
  8. Study of yield contributing characters and yield calculation of kharif season crops, 
  9. Study of crop varieties and important agronomic experiments at experimental farm.
  10. Study of forage experiments,
  11. Morphological description of kharif season crops, 
  12. Visit to research centres of related crops.

Introductory Agrometeorology & Climate Change 2(1+1)

Introductory Agrometeorology & Climate Change 2(1+1)

  1. Meaning and scope of agricultural meteorology
  2. Earth atmosphere - its composition, extent and structure
  3. Atmospheric weather variables
  4. Atmospheric pressure, its variation with height
  5. Wind, types of wind, daily and seasonal variation of wind speed, 
  6. Cyclone, anticyclone, land breeze and sea breeze
  7. Nature and properties of solar radiation 
  8. Solar constant, depletion of solar radiation
  9. Short wave, longwave and thermal radiation 
  10. Net radiation 
  11. Albedo
  12. Atmospheric temperature,
  13. Temperature inversion, lapse rate, daily and seasonal variations of temperature, vertical profile of temperature, 
  14. Energy balance of earth.
  15. Atmospheric humidity, 
  16. Concept of saturation, vapor pressure, 
  17. Process of condensation, 
  18. formation of dew, fog, mist, frost, cloud
  19. Precipitation, process of precipitation, types of precipitation such as rain, snow, sleet, and hail, cloud formation and classification
  20. Artificial rainmaking. 
  21. Monsoon- mechanism and importance in Indian agriculture,
  22. Weather hazards - drought, floods, frost, tropical cyclones and extreme weather conditions such as heat-wave and cold-wave. 
  23. Agriculture and weather relations
  24. Modifications of crop microclimate, climatic normals for crop and livestock production. 
  25. Weather forecasting - types of weather forecast and their uses. 
  26. Climate change 
  27. Climatic variability 
  28. Global warming 
  29. Causes of climate change and its impact on regional and national Agriculture.

  1. Visit of Agrometeorological Observatory
  2. site selection of observatory
  3. exposure of instruments and weather data recording
  4. Measurement of total, shortwave and longwave radiation, and its estimation using Planck’s intensity law. 
  5. Measurement of albedo and sunshine duration, computation of Radiation Intensity using BSS. 
  6. Measurement of maximum and minimum air temperatures, its tabulation, trend and variation analysis. 
  7. Measurement of soil temperature and computation of soil heat flux. 
  8. Determination of vapor pressure and relative humidity.
  9. Determination of dew point temperature. 
  10. Measurement of atmospheric pressure and analysis of atmospheric conditions. 
  11. Measurement of wind speed and wind direction, preparation of windrose. 
  12. Measurement, tabulation and analysis of rain. 
  13. Measurement of open pan evaporation and evapotranspiration. 
  14. Computation of PET and AET.

Fundamentals of Agronomy

Fundamentals of Agronomy 


  1. Agronomy and Its Scope, 
  2. Seeds and Sowing, 
  3. Tillage and Tilth, 
  4. Crop Density and Geometry, 
  5. Crop Nutrition, 
  6. Manures and Fertilizers, 
  7. Nutrient Use Efficiency, 
  8. Water Resources, 
  9. Soil-plant-water Relationship, 
  10. Crop Water Requirement, 
  11. Water Use Efficiency, 
  12. Irrigation- Scheduling Criteria and Methods, 
  13. Quality of Irrigation Water, Logging. 
  14. Weeds- Importance, Classification, 
  15. Crop Weed Competition, 
  16. Concepts of Weed Management Principles and Methods, 
  17. Herbicides- Classification, 
  18. Selectivity and Resistance, 
  19. Allelopathy. 
  20. Growth and Development of Crops, 
  21. Factors Affecting Growth and Development, 
  22. Plant Ideotypes, 
  23. Crop Rotation and Its Principles, 
  24. Adaptation and Distribution of Crops, 
  25. Crop Management Technologies in Problematic Areas, 
  26. Harvesting and Threshing of Crops. 


  1. Identification of crops, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and tillage implements, 
  2. Study of agro climatic zones of India, 
  3. Identification of weeds in crops, 
  4. Methods of herbicide and fertilizer application, 
  5. Study of yield contributing characters and yield estimation, 
  6. Seed germination and viability test, 
  7. Numerical exercises on fertilizer requirement, plant population, herbicides and water requirement, 
  8. Use of tillage implements-reversible plough, one way plough, harrow, leveler, seed drill, Study of soil moisture measuring devices, 
  9. Measurement of field capacity, bulk density and infiltration rate, 
  10. Measurement of irrigation water.

Recommendation Books:

MP ADA 2019 Syllabus

2020-21 परीक्षा (मध्यप्रदेश सरकार द्वारा) MP ADA Exam

सहायक संचालक किसान कल्याण तथा कृषि विकास (क्षेत्र विस्तार) परीक्षा-2019
खण्ड-'अ'-मध्यप्रदेश, राष्ट्रीय एवं अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर का सामान्य ज्ञान
1. मध्यप्रदेश का इतिहास, संस्कृति एवं साहित्य
  • मध्यप्रदेश के इतिहास की महत्त्वपूर्ण घटनाएँ, प्रमुख राजवंश।
  • स्वतंत्रता आन्दोलन में मध्यप्रदेश का योगदान।
  • मध्यप्रदेश की कला एवं संस्कृति। मध्यप्रदेश की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ एवं बोलियाँ।
  • प्रदेश के प्रमुख त्योहार, लोक संगीत एवं लोक कलाएँ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश के प्रमुख साहित्यकार एवं उनकी रचनाएँ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश के प्रमुख पर्यटन स्थल ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश के प्रमुख व्यक्तित्व ।
2. मध्यप्रदेश का भूगोल
  • मध्यप्रदेश के वन, पर्वत तथा नदियाँ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश की जलवायु।।
  • मध्यप्रदेश के प्राकृतिक एवं खनिज संसाधन।
  • ऊर्जा संसाधन : परंपरागत एवं गैर परंपरागत।
  • मध्यप्रदेश की प्रमुख सिंचाई एवं विद्युत परियोजनाएँ।
3. मध्यप्रदेश की राजनीति एवं अर्थशास्त्र
  • मध्यप्रदेश की राजनीतिक व्यवस्था (राज्यपाल, मंत्रिमंडल, विधानसभा)
  • मध्यप्रदेश में पंचायतीराज व्यवस्था ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश की सामाजिक व्यवस्था ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश की जनांकिकी एवं जनगणना।
  • मध्यप्रदेश का आर्थिक विकास ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश के प्रमुख उद्योग।
  • मध्यप्रदेश में कृषि एवं कृषि आधारित उद्योग।
4. अंतर्राष्ट्रीय, राष्ट्रीय एवं मध्यप्रदेश की महत्त्वपूर्ण समसामयिक घटनाएँ
  • महत्त्वपूर्ण समसामयिक घटनाएँ।
  • देश एवं प्रदेश की प्रमुख खेल प्रतियोगिताएँ एवं पुरस्कार तथा खेल संस्थाएँ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश राज्य की प्रमुख जन कल्याणकारी योजनाएँ।
  • मध्यप्रदेश के चर्चित व्यक्तित्व एवं स्थान।
5. सूचना एवं संचार प्रौद्योगिकी।
  • इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स, कंप्यूटर्स, सूचना एवं संचार प्रौद्योगिकी।
  • रोबोटिक्स, आर्टिफिशियल इंटेलीजेन्स एवं सायबर सिक्यूरिटी।
  • ई-गवर्नेन्स |
  • इंटरनेट तथा सोशल नेटवर्किंग साईट्स।
  • ई-कॉमर्स।
(Section-'A')-General Knowledge of Madhya Pradesh, National and International level
1. History culture and literature of M.P.
  • Important Historical events and Major dynasties of M.P.
  • Contribution of Madhya Pradesh in the Independence movements.
  • Art, Architecture and culture of M.P.
  • Main Tribes and Dialects of M.P.
  • Main festivals, folk music and folk art of M.P.
  • Important literary figures of M.P. and their literature.
  • Main Tourist places of M.P.
  • Important personalities of M.P.
2. Geography of the Madhya Pradesh
  • Forest, Mountain and Rivers of M.P.
  • Climate of M.P.
  • Natural and mineral resources of M.P.
  • Energy Resources: Conventional and Non-conventional.
  • Main irrigation and Power projects of M.P.
3. Politics and Economy of M.P.
  • Political system of M.P.(Governor, Cabinet, Legislative Assembly).
  • Panchayati Raj in M.P.
  • Social system of M.P.
  • Demography and census of M.P.
  • Economic development of M.P.
  • Main industries of M.P.
  • Agriculture and Agri based industries in M.P.
4. Current events of International, National and M.P.
  • Important Contemporaneous events.
  • Famous sports competitions; awards and sports institutions of the State and country.
  • Welfare schemes of M.P. state.
  • Famous personalities and Places.
5. Information and Communication Technology
  • Electronics, computers, information and communication technology.
  • Robotics, artificial intelligence and cyber security.
  • E-Governance.
  • Internet and Social networking site.
  • E-Commerce.
खण्ड-'ब'- कृषि
सहायक संचालक कृषि लिखित परीक्षा पाठ्यकम
1. कृषि, उसका राष्ट्रीय अर्थव्यवस्था में महत्व कृषि पारिस्थितिक क्षेत्र तथा फसल एवं पौधों का भौगोलिक वितरण, कृषि का इतिहास, टिकाऊ खेती ।
2 भारत एवं मध्यप्रदेश की प्रमुख फसलें। अनाज, दलहन, तिलहन, सर्करा फसलें, रेशे वाली फसलें एवं चारे की फसलों की कृषि कार्य माला ।
विभन्न फसल पदतिया, फसल चक, कृषि पद्वतिया, बहु फसली खेती अविराम खेती अन्तरवर्तीय खेती, मिश्रित एवं कार्मि फसल पद्वति (सीक्युन्स कापिंग),एकीकृत फसल प्रबंधन, भू सूचना विज्ञान, नैनो तकनीक एवं. परिशुध्ता खेती, जैविक खेती।
3. मौसम एवं फसलों के संबंध, सूखा, बाढ़, शीत लहरें एवं पाला। कृषि के लिए मौसम विज्ञान से संबंधित सेवायें, मौसम परिर्वतन एवं समुत्थानशील कृषि, आकस्मिक कृषि योजना)
4. पौध वृद्धि के माध्यम के रूप में मृदा व उसकी संरचना, मृदा के खनिज और जैविक घटक एवं उनकी फसल उत्पादन में भूमिका । भारत तथा मध्यप्रदेश की प्रमुख मुदाओं के प्रकार | मृदा के रासायनिक भौतिक एवं सूक्ष्म जैविक गुण धर्म। पौधों के लिए आवश्यक पोषक तत्व, उनके कार्य तथा कमी के लक्षण, उपलब्धता व मृदा में उसका चंक। विशुद्ध उर्वरक जटिल एवं मिश्रित उर्वरक तथा जैविक उर्वरक जिनका भारत में उत्पादन तथा विपणन किया जाता है। पौधों के लिये एकीकृत पोषक तत्व प्रबंधन। समस्याग्रस्त मृदायें जैसे लवणीय, क्षारीय एवं अम्लीय मृदाओं का प्रबंधन, मृदा परिक्षण फसल प्रतिकिया, मृदा एवं जल प्रबंध। सिंचाई की विधियां भूमि कटाव, कटाव के कारण उसको नियंत्रित करने की विधियां। वर्षा जल का संरक्षण । जलग्रहण क्षेत्र का विकास। बारानी खेती के सिद्वांत तथा विधियां।
5. पौध पोषण, पोषक तत्वों का अवशोषक स्थानान्तण या संवहन तथा सत्वों का चयापचय (Metabolism) के संदर्भ में पौध क्रियान्ययन के सिद्धांत । पौध वृद्धि में प्रकाश संश्लेषण तथा श्यसन किया वृद्धि तथा विकास, विकास वर्धिका (Auxin ) तथा हारमोन्स।
6. अनुवांशिकी तथा पौध प्रजनन के तत्व जो पौधौं के विकास में लागू होते है, संफर तथा संकुल (कम्पोजिट) जातियों के पौधों का विकास। प्रमुख फसलों की महत्वपूर्ण संकर व संकुल जातिया, वौद्विक समपदा अधिकार।
7. भारत एवं मध्यप्रदेश के महत्वपूर्ण फल तथा साग सब्जी की फसलें, उनकी कृषि कार्य माला। फसल चक, अन्तरवर्तीय फसल पद्वति एवं सह फसलें, मानव के पोषण में फलों तथा साक -भाजियों की भूमिका । कटाई उपरान्त देखभाल एवं फलं तथा संब्जियों पर संरक्षण, उच्च तकनीक उध्यानिकी।
8. प्रमुख फसलों को हानि पहुंचाने वाले खरपतवार, कीट तथा रोग। फसल सुखा उपायों के सिद्धात। खरपतवार, कीटों, तथा रोगों का एकीकृत नियंत्रण, एकीकृत खरपतवार नियंत्रण, एकीकृत कीट नियंत्रण।
मृदा सर्वेक्षण के उद्देश्य एवं सिद्वांत । समोच्च रेखीकरण, प्रक्षेत्र विकास, भूमि क्षमता का वर्गीकरण, प्रक्षेत्र यंत्र एवं उपकरण, बैल एवं ऊर्जा चलित यंत्र, मशीनीकरण, इसका औचित्य एवं भारत में इसकी संभावनाएं। बोने के लिये खेत की तैयारी, भूमि प्रबंध, बुआई तथा निदाई - गुड़ाई यंत्र या उपकरण, पौध संरक्षण उपकरण, कटाई एवं गहाई के यंत्र। कटाई उपरान्त उपयोगी मशीने । प्रक्षेत्रमशीनों या यंत्रो का उपयोग के पूर्व तथा उपयोग के पश्चात रख - रखाव।
10. कृषि के संदर्भ में अर्थशास्त्र अधिक उत्पादन के प्रक्षेत्र कार्य योजना तथा संसाधन प्रबंधन। फसल उत्पादन के कारक तथा उत्पादन से सह संबंध, उपज का विपणन व मध्यप्रदेश में नियमित मंडिया। कृषि उपज का मूल्य तथा कृषि विकास में उसकी भूमिका, कृषि व्यवसाय पर आर्थिक सुधारों का प्रभाव, कृषि उत्पादन के उद्देश्य । राज्य, जिला तथा विकासखंड स्तर पर विस्तार संगठन, उसकी संरचना, कार्य तथा जिम्मेदारिया। संचार साधनों के तरीके। विस्तार सेवाओं में प्रक्षेत्र संगठन की भूमिका, कृषि में महिलायें , महिला उध्यमी , महिला सशक्तीकरण कृषि उद्यम एवं ग्रामीण उद्यम के अवसर।
(Section-'A')- Agriculture
Syllabus for written test for
Assistant Director, Agriculture
1. Agriculture, its importance in national economy, agro-ecological zone and geographic distribution of crop plants. Agriculture heritage, Sustainable agriculture..
2. Important crop of India and M:P. Package of practices for cultivation of cereal, Pütsesbilseeds, Sugar, Fibre and forage crops; Different cropping systems, Framing system, Crop rotations, multiple and relay cropping, intercropping mixed cropping and sequence cropping. Integrated crop management, Geoinformatics , Nanotechnology and precision farming
3. Crop weather relationship, floods, Cold Waves and frosts, Meteorological services to agriculture. Climate change and climate resilient agriculture, Remote sensing, contingent crop planning.
4.Soil as a medium for plan growth and its Composition, minerals and organic constituents of the soil and their role in crop production, Soils types of India and M.P. Chemical; Physical and microbiological properties of soils; Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms, Occurrence and Cycling in soils, Straight, complex and mixed fertilizers and biofertilizers manufactures and marketed in India, Integrated nutrient management for plant Management of problem soils such as saline, alkali and acid soils. Soil Test based crop response (STCR) concept, Soil and water management Irrigation methods, soil erosion, its causes and control measures, Rain Water conservation, Watershed development, Rainfed farming principles and practices.
5.Principles of plant physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients photo- synthesis and respiration growth and development auxins and hormones in plant growth.
6. Elements of genetics and plant breeding as applied to improvement of crops, development of plant hybrids and composites, important varieties, hybrid and composites of crops. Intellectual property rights.
7. Important fruits and vegetable crops of M.P. and India, their package of practices Crop rotation, intercropping and companion crop. role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition. High Tech horticulture, Value addition
8. Serious weeds, pests and diseases affecting major crops. Principles of plant protection measures integrated control of weed, pests and diseases. Integrated weed management( IWM) and Integrated pest management (IPM)
9. Principles and objective of surveying. Contouring, Farm development, land capability classification, Farm machinery and equipment. Bullock drawn and power, driven Farm implements, Mechanization and its relevance and scope in India. Şeed bed preparation land shaping, seeding and intercultural tools or equipments, plånt protection equipment, harvesting and threshing machines, post harvest machinery, Care and maintenance before and after use of from implements and machinery
10. Economics with reference to agriculture Farm planning and management for enhanced production, Factors of Crop production and production relationships, marketing of agricultural produce and regulated markets in M.P. Price of agricultural produce and its role in agricultural development, Impact of economic reforms on agriculture business. Principle and objectives of agricultural extension. Extension organization at the district and block levels, their structure functions and responsibilities Methods Communication role of farm organizations in extension services. Women in agriculture, Women entrepreneur, Women empowerment; Opportunities for agriculture entrepreneurship and Rural enterprise.

Biotechnology for JRF SRF NET

  • The term “Biotechnology" was first coined in 1919 by Karl Ereky which means products are produced from raw materials with the aid of living organisms. 
  • Biotechnology is NOT new. Man has been manipulating living things to solve problems and improve his way of life for millennia. 
  • Plants and animals were selectively bred and microorganisms were used to make food items such as beverages, cheese and bread. T
  • he late eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century saw the advent of vaccinations, crop rotation involving leguminous crops and animal drawn machinery. The end of the nineteenth century was a milestone of biology.
  •  Microorganisms were discovered, Mendel's work on genetics was accomplished and institutes for investigating fermentation and other microbial processes were established by Koch, Pasteur and Lister.

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