Notice Board




Unit 1: Computer organization and architecture 
Boolean algebra, Number system, Basic concepts of floating point number system, Sequential and combinational circuits, Input/Output unit, Memory Organization, ALU and Control unit, Instruction and execution cycle in CPU, Introduction to microprocessors, Interrupts, CISC and RISC Architecture. 

Unit 2: Programming language (C++/JAVA) 
Computer algorithms, Flow Charts, Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism, Building blocks, Control structures, Arrays, Pointers, Dynamic memory allocation, File management. 

Unit 3: Internet programming 
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Building static and dynamic web pages, Client side and server side scripting languages, Interaction with database. 

Unit 4: Data structures 
Representation of character, string and their manipulation, Linear list structure, Stack, Queue, Heaps, Linked list, Arrays, Tree, Graph, Sorting and Searching algorithms. 

Unit 5: Software engineering 
Requirement analysis and specification, Software Development Phases, Process models, Project structure, Project team structure, Role of metrics, Measurement, Software quality factors, Coding tools and techniques, Testing, Maintenance, Gantt charts, PERT and CPM, CASE tools. 

Unit 6: Networking 
Types of Networks, Network topology, Network Management, Data communication and transmission, ISO-OSI reference model, TCP/IP reference model, Internet standards and services, Cryptography, Data compression, Authentication and firewalls. 

Unit 7: Compilers and translators 
Regular expression, Finite automata, Formal languages, Finite state machines, Lexical analysis, Semantic analysis, Parsing algorithms, Symbol tables, Error handling, Intermediate code optimization, Machine code generation, Machine dependent optimization. 

Unit 8: Operating system 
Process management: Inter-process communication, Process scheduling; Memory management: Swapping, Virtual memory, Paging and segmentation; Device management: Deadlocks, Semaphores; File systems –Files, Directories, Security and protection mechanisms; Distributed operating systems. 

Unit 9: Data base management system 
Definition and features, Data models, Relational database: Logical and physical structure, Relational algebra, Relational calculus, Database design, Normalization, Concurrency control, Security and integrity, Query processing and optimization, Indexes, Backup and recovery; Distributed Databases – Concepts, Architecture, Design; Structured Query Language (SQL), PL/SQL.

Unit 10: Numerical analysis 
Interpolation, Numerical integration, Solution of ordinary differential equations, Solution of linear and non-linear system of equations; Statistical methods – Summarization of data, Frequency distribution, Measures of central tendency, Dispersion, Skewness and kurtosis, Theory of Probability, Random variable and mathematical expectation, Correlation and regression, Basic Principles of Design of Experiments: Analysis of Variance, Completely randomized design (CRD), Randomized complete block design (RCBD), Latin Square Design (LSD). Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson, Normal Distributions and their Applications. Concept of sampling, Sampling vs. Complete Enumeration, Sampling from a Finite Population, Simple Random Sampling. Test of significance based on normal, chi-square, t and F distributions, Curve fitting, Point estimation. 

NOTE 4: The syllabus mentioned above is illustrative only. Questions relating to recent/current developments taking place in agriculture and allied sciences in general and in the concerned subject areas in particular can also be included in the question papers as may be deemed appropriate by subject- paper experts.




Unit 1: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 
Structure of DNA and RNA, Basics of replication, transcription and translation. Posttranscriptional and translational modifications. Transcriptional and translation control of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Features of genetic code in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gene expression. General principles of recombinant DNA technology, restriction enzymes. Methods of gene transfer-plasmid and viruses as vectors, genomic and cDNA library construction, chromosome walking. Basics of genome organization and mapping, Non-coding RNA, Genome Editing, Gene silencing. Bio-chips. 

Unit 2: Preliminaries of Bioinformatics 
Overview of available genomic resources on the web; NCBI/ EBI/ EXPASY etc; Nucleic acid sequence databases; GenBank/ EMBL/ DDBJ; Database search engines: Entrez, SRS. Overview/concepts in sequence analysis; Pairwise sequence alignment algorithms: Needleman & Wunsch, Smith & Waterman; BLAST, FASTA; Scoring matrices for Nucleic acids and proteins: PAM, BLOSUM, Multiple sequence alignment: PRAS, CLUSTALW. 

Unit 3: Genome assembly 
Types and methods of genome sequence data generation; Shot gun sequencing method; Problems of genome assembly, Approaches of genome assembly: Comparative Assembly, DE novo Assembly; Read coverages; Sequencing errors, Sequence Quality Matrix, Assembly Evaluation; Challenges in Genome Assembly. Various tools and related methods of genome assembly: MIRA, Velvet, ABySS, ALLPATHS-LG, Bambus2, Celera Assembler, SGA, SOAPdenovo etc. 

Unit 4: Evolutionary Biology 
Phylogenetic trees and their comparison: Definition and description, various types of trees; Consensus (strict, semi-strict, Adams, majority rule, Nelson); Data partitioning and combination Tree to tree distances, similarity; Phylogenetic analysis algorithms: Maximum Parsimony, Distance based: UPGMA, Transformed Distance, Neighbors-Relation, Neighbor-Joining. Probabilistic models of evolution, Maximum likelihood algorithm; Approaches for tree reconstruction: Character optimization; delayed and accelerated transformation, Reliability of trees, Bootstrap, jackknife, decay, randomization tests. 

Unit 5: Statistical Genomics 
Frequency distributions, Graphical representations and Descriptive statistics. Elements of probability theory, Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem. Random variable- discrete and continuous. Mathematical expectation. Moment generating and characteristic functions. Probability distributions-Binomial, Poisson and Normal distribution and its application. Sampling distributions and its properties- Chi-square, t, and F. Testing of hypotheses - types of errors, level of significance and power of a test, Tests of significance based on Z, t, chi-square and F distributions. Concept of sampling, Sampling vs. Complete Enumeration, Simple Random Sampling. Correlation and regression analysis. Fundamentals of Population genetics: Gene and genotypic frequencies. Random mating and equilibrium in large populations, Hardy –Weinberg law, Effect of systematic forces on changes in gene frequency- Selection, mutation and migration. Equilibrium between forces in large population. Polymorphism. Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection. Polygenic systems for quantitative characters, Principles of Quantitative genetics: Values, Means and Variances, Concepts of breeding value, dominance, average effect of gene and epistatic interactions. Detection and Estimation of Linkage, Genetic variance and its partitioning. Correlation between relatives. Genotype and environment interaction. Estimation of genetic parameters. Genome wide association study. 

Unit 6: Protein Structure Prediction 
Nature of proteomic data; Overview of protein data bases; SWISSPROT, UniProtKB; PIR-PSD, PDB, Prosite, BLOCKS, Pfam/Prodom etc.; Structure analysis: Exploring the Database searches on PDB and CSD, WHATIF Molecular visualization tools; Visualization of tertiary structures, quaternary structures, architectures and topologies of proteins using molecular visualization softwares such as RasMol, Cn3D, SPDBV, Chime, Mol4D etc. Structure prediction tools and homology modeling: Prediction of secondary structures of proteins using different methods with analysis and interpretation of the results; Comparison of the performance of the different methods for various classes of proteins. (Fasman method, Garnier Osguthorpe Robson (GOR), Neural Network based; methods); NLP approach for secondary structure prediction of RNA; Introduction to mfold and Vienna packages; Prediction of tertiary structures of proteins using Homology Modeling approach: SWISSMODEL, SWISSPDB Viewer; along with analysis and interpretation of results. Molecular dynamics simulation and docking. 

Unit 7: Biological Database Management System 
Database Management System (DBMS): definition and purpose of DBMS, Advantages of DBMS, DBMS Architecture- Three level Architecture for DBMS –internal, conceptual and external levels and their Schemas and Mapping, Role of Schemas, Data Abstraction, Data independence-Physical and Logical data independence. Data Models-Relational, Network, Hierarchical. Relational data models (binary, ternary, quaternary & n-ary relations) Components: Relation, Tuple, cardinality, degree. Network model- Entity Relationship (E-R) modelComponents of E-R model: Entities, Attributes, Relationships. Relational Databases-, Important terms in relational database system, Primary and Foreign keys. Relational Data Integrity and constraints: Domain Constraints, Entity Integrity, Referential constraints. Normal forms. Structured Query Language- Commands, Queries, Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML). Primary, secondary and derived biological databases, submitting sequence to the Database and retrieval. 

Unit 8: Bio-programming and Computational Biology 
Object oriented programming, classes, objects, Abstract data types, Data types, Operators (Arithmetic, Logical and Comparison) and expressions. Data encapsulation- modules and interfaces; Polymorphism - Static and dynamic binding, Inheritance: class and object inheritance. Perl: Introduction, Scalar, Arrays and List Data, Control Structures, Hashes, String Handling, Regular Expressions; Subroutines, File handling, BioPERL modules. Machine learning techniques, Supervised and unsupervised learning, Discsion tree, hidden markov model, Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine and genetic algorithms. Pre-processing of gene expression data; Data Normalization techniques, Data quality control: Modelling of errors, Imputation etc; High-throughput screening.




Unit 1: Statistical Methods I 
Descriptive statistics. Elements of probability theory, conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem. Random variable-discrete and continuous. Mathematical expectation. Moment generating and characteristic functions. Laws of large numbers. Central limit theorem. Discrete probability distributions: binomial, Poisson, negative binomial, geometric, multinomial and hypergeometric. Continuous probability distributions: normal, rectangular, Cauchy, exponential, gamma and beta. Sampling distributions: chi-square, t, and F. Bivariate normal distribution: conditional and marginal. Point estimation: unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency. Completeness. Minimum variance unbiased estimator. Cramer-Rao Inequality. Rao-Blackwell theorem and LehmanScheffe theorem. Methods of point estimation like Maximum likelihood, Moments, Minimum chi-square. Confidence interval estimation. Testing of hypotheses - two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. Neyman-Pearson Lemma. Uniformly most powerful tests and their construction. Unbiased test, Likelihood ratio test. Tests of significance based on Z, t, chisquare and F distributions. 

Unit 2: Statistical Methods II 
Correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, intra-class correlation. Simple and multiple regression analysis, partial and multiple correlation. Examination of residuals. Model-adequacy, Selecting best regression. Compound and truncated distribution, Order statistics. Non-parametric tests: run, sign, rank, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Cochran and Friedman’s tests. Contingency tables. Log linear models. Sequential analysis, sequential probability ratio test. Components of time series. Multivariate normal distribution: estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix. Wishart distribution, Hotelling T2 , multivariate analysis of variance, principal component analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis. Linear Programming: formulation and graphical solution, simplex method, duality, transportation and assignment problems. 

Unit 3: Statistical Genetics 
Statistical analysis of segregation, detection and estimation of linkage. Gene and genotypic frequencies. Random mating and equilibrium in large populations. Disequilibrium due to linkages for two pairs of genes and for sex linked genes. Selection, mutation and migration. Equilibrium between forces in large population. Polymorphism. Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection. Polygenic systems for quantitative characters, Concepts of breeding value, dominance, average effect of gene and epistatic interactions. Genetic variance and its partitioning. Correlation between relatives. Regular system of inbreeding, effects of inbreeding. Genotype and environment interaction, stability parameters. Estimation of heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation. Path coefficient analysis. Heterosis, concepts of general and specific combining abilities. Diallel crosses and line × tester analysis. Response due to selection. Prediction of response to individual, family and combined selections. Construction of selection index. 

Unit 4: Design of Experiments 
Linear models: Random, fixed and mixed effects. Nested and crossed classifications. GaussMarkoff theorem. Analysis of variance. Principles of design of experiments. Uniformity trials. Completely randomized design. Randomized complete block design. Latin square design. Factorial experiments: 2n and 3n series and asymmetrical factorial experiments, confounding in 2 n and 3n experiments, split and strip-plot designs, crossover designs. Multiple comparison procedures. Missing plot techniques. Analysis of covariance. Variance stabilizing transformations. Analysis of general block design. Balanced incomplete block designs: construction and analysis. Partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes, lattice designs. Youden square design. Groups of experiments. 

Unit 5: Sample Surveys 
Sampling versus complete enumeration. Concept of probability sampling. Simple random sampling. Stratified sampling, allocation in stratified sampling, choice of strata, construction of strata boundaries and collapsing of strata. Use of auxiliary information in sample surveys, ratio and regression methods of estimation. Systematic sampling. Cluster and multi-stage sampling with equal probability. Sampling with unequal probabilities with and without replacement, sampling schemes with inclusion probabilities proportional to size. Double sampling, sampling on successive occasions. Non-sampling errors: sources and classification. Randomized response techniques, imputation methods. Design and organization of pilot and large scale surveys. National sample surveys. Agricultural statistics system in the country-land use statistics, crop estimation surveys, livestock and fishery statistics.




Unit 1: Fundamentals of Extension Education and Programme Planning 
Extension Education – Meaning, objectives, concepts, principles and philosophy. Adult Education and Distance Education. Steps in Extension Teaching-Teaching Learning process and Extension approaches of ICAR. Pioneering Extension efforts and their implications in Indian Agricultural Extension –ICAR and SAU, State Departments Extension system and NGOs. Community development and Poverty Alleviation Programmes – SGSY, SGRY, PMGSY, DPAP, DDP, CAPART – Employment Generation Programmes – NREGP, Women Development Programmes – ICDS, MSY, RMK, Problems in Rural Development. National level agricultural development programmes - NADP, NMAE&T, NFSM, Prime Minister seven point strategies for doubling the income of farmers and ARYA. Extension efforts and Rural Development Programmes in pre-independence era (Sriniketan, Marthandam, Firka Development scheme, Gurgaon Experiment, Sevagram, IVS,GMFC) Post – independence era(Etawah pilot project, Nilokheri Experiment, CDP, NES, IAAP, IADP, HYVP, MCP, IRDP, ICDS, DWCRA, TRYSEM, IAY, JRY, SFDA, MFAL). Ongoing development programmes in Agriculture/ Rural/ Animal Husbandry launched by ICAR/Govt. of India (T & V System, BBES, KVK, ATIC, ATMA, NAAP, NATP, NARP, NAIP, NADP, SADP, MGNREGS, PM Kisan, ARYA, NMAET, PMFBY).Different Approaches in Extension- PRA, RRA, PTD, PLA, FAR, PAME, AEA, FSRE, Market – Led – Extension, Farmers’ Field School, Kisan Call Centers and ATMA. Programme Planning –Steps, Principles. Monitoring and Evaluation- Steps, Keys and Principles 

Unit 2: Extension Methods & Farm Journalism 
Extension Methods – Definition, Individual, group and mass approaches in extension, audiovisual aids- classification, selection, use and production. Traditional media for communication in development programmes. Modularized communication- concept, approach, need, process of designing instruction for transfer of communication. Basics of agricultural journalism, types of publications – bulletins, folders, leaflets, booklets, newsletters, popular and scientific articles. Selection, planning and use of different extension teaching methods like demonstration, exhibition, farmers fairs, field days, tours, extension literature, etc. Preparation and presentation of different projected and non-projected audio-visual aids. Public speaking. Preparation of radio/video script. Principles of photography and its use in extension. 

Unit 3: Information & Communication Technologies and Development Communication
Communication – models, types, elements, characteristics and barriers, Modern extension approaches( Private Extension, PPP, Market and Farmer led Extension, Group approaches – FIGs, CIGs, FPOs and ICT enabled extension), Transfer of Technology – Models, Development Communication– Theories. ICT and Development Communication – Role in abridging Digital divide. Concept of ICT and its role in agriculture and rural development. ICT tools- print and electronic media- Satellite Radio, Community Radio, Internet Radio, Television, Interactive Television, Newspapers, e-publications, e-mail, Internet, Multimedia, Mobile phony, Video and teleconferencing, computer-assisted instructions, web technologies – Web portals, Mobile apps and Social Media tools,e-learning- information resources, information kiosks, sharing and networking. Types of network – PAN, LAN, WAN. AGRISNET, AKIS, Indian National Agricultural Research database. ICT programmes in agriculture and allied sectors - Problems and prospects. Artificial Intelligence in Agricultural Extension- Expert system, Decision Support System. 

Unit 4: Training and Human Resource Development Human 
Resource Development – Meaning & importance. Steps in HRD- Recruitment, Induction Staff Training and Development, Career planning; Social and Organizational Culture: Indian environment perspective. Organizational and Managerial values and ethics, organizational commitment; Motivation- Theories – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, techniques & productivity. Job description , Job analysis and Performance appraisal. Human Resource management: Collective bargaining, Negotiation skills, Human Resource Accounting (HRA): Information Management for HR.: Collective behaviour, learning, and perception; Stress and coping mechanisms. Communication and Feedback and Inter personal processes & interpersonal styles. Organizational communication, Team building Process and functioning, Conflict management, Collaboration and Competition. HRD & role of supervisors: Task Analysis, Capacity Building, Counseling and Mentoring; Role of a Professional Manager. Task of a Professional Manager. Managerial skills and Soft Stills required for Extension workers. Decision Making: Decision making models, Management by Objective. Leadership styles – Group dynamics. Training – Meaning, types, models, methods and evaluation, techniques for trainees’ participation. 

Unit 5: Research Methodology in Extension Education 
Science – Four methods of knowing things. Research – Meaning, importance, Types and methods of Research – Fundamental, Applied and Action research, Exploratory, Descriptive, Diagnostic, Evaluation, Experimental, Analytical, Historical, Survey and Case Study. Different steps in scientific research– selection of problem, hypothesis, review of literature, objectives, variables and types, different data collection tools, Sampling techniques and different statistical analysis. Measurement – Meaning, postulates and levels of measurement, Steps in test construction, Item writing and Item analysis. Research Designs– types, MAXMINCON Principle. Meaning and Types of Reliability & validity, Rating scales, Observation, Case studies. Social survey – Meaning, objectives, types and steps. Data processing – meaning, coding, preparation of master code sheet, Analysis and tabulation of data – Parametric and NonParametric statistical tools. Report writing – Meaning, guidelines to be followed in scientific report writing, References in reporting. 

Unit 6: Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations 
Diffusion – Elements, Innovation- Development process; Adoption – Process, Stages; Innovation decision process- Types of innovation decision-Optional, collective and authoritative and contingent; Consequences of innovation decisions- Desirable or undesirable, direct or indirect, anticipated or unanticipated consequences. Innovativeness – concept and types; Adopter categories- Characteristics of adopter categories, Attributes of innovation, Rate of adoption of innovation and barriers in adoption process, Factors influencing rate of adoption; Diffusion effect, Over adoption, Re-invention; Opinion leadership- Measurement and characteristics of opinion leaders- Monomorphic and polymorphic opinion leadership. Models and theories of diffusion- One step flow model, Hypodermic Needle model, Multi-step flow of innovation. Concept of homophily and heterophily and their influence on flow of innovation, Decision making-Meaning, definition and theories , Process and steps and factor influencing of decision making- Role of Change Agents. 

Unit 7: Management in Extension 
Management – Meaning, concept, nature and importance, Approaches to management, Levels of management, Extension Management - Concept, Importance, Principles and functions of management, Planning – Concept, Nature, Importance, Types. Change Management- Decision making – Concept, Types of decisions - Steps in Decision Making Process, Organizing - Meaning of Organization, Concept, principles, Span of Management, Departmentalization, Authority and responsibility, Delegation and decentralization, line and staff relations Management by Objective (MBO) and Total Quality Management (TQM). Logical Frame Working (LFW) and Project Management Techniques. Personal management, scope of Agribusiness Management and Institutions - National Institute of Agricultural Extension and Management (MANAGE). Indian Institute of Plantation Management (IIPM), NIRD, EEl and NAARM. Monitoring, evaluation and impact analysis of extension programmes. Critical analysis of organizational set up of extension administration at various levels.

Unit 8: Entrepreneurship Development 
Entrepreneurship – Concept, characteristics, Approaches, Theories and Need. Agri – entrepreneurship – Concept, characteristics, Nature and importance for Sustainable Livelihood. Traits of entrepreneurs. Leadership, Decision making, Planning, Organizing, Coordinating and Marketing, Types of Entrepreneurs. Stages of establishing enterprise, steps to be considered in setting up an enterprise, Project Management and Appraisal – Market, Technical, Financial, Social Appraisal of Projects. Micro enterprises – Profitable Agrienterprises in India – Agro Processing, KVIC industries. Micro financing – meaning, Sources of Finance, Banks, Small scale industries development organizations. Marketing for enterprises – Product sales and promotion. 

Unit 9: Market - Led Extension 
Agricultural marketing- Concept. Market led extension – Dimensions, emerging perspectives issues and challenges. Development of a marketing plan, pricing concepts and pricing strategy; Consumer behaviour; Market Intelligence, Supply Chain Management, Marketing communication and promotional strategies; Marketing research process; Agricultural trade liberalization and its impact; International marketing opportunities; Implications of AOA, TRIPS and IPR agreements on agriculture; Agreement on SPS and TBT. Commodity features marketing. Public private linkages in market led extension; FPOs and SHG in market led extension; Contract farming. 

Unit 10: Gender Sensitization and Empowerment 
Gender concepts, Gender roles, gender balance, status, need and scope; Gender analysis – Tools and Techniques. Gender development policies of Govt. of India – The historical evolution.Developmental programmes for women; Gender mainstreaming in agriculture and allied sectors. Gender budgeting. Women empowerment – Dimensions; Women empowerment through SHG approach; Women entrepreneurship and its role. Public Private Partnership for the economic empowerment of women; Building rural institution for women empowerment; Women rights, issues and development.




Unit 1: Basics of management &Organizational Behavior 
Management – Nature, Scope and Significance of Management - Evolution of Management Thought - Classical School of management, Hawthorne studies, Modern theories of management - Approaches to Management- Functions of management – Planning, organising, staffing, directing (motivation, supervision, communication, leadership) controlling. 

Models of organizational behavior. Micro organizational behavior-Personality, perception, attitude.Motivational theories. Leadership styles& theories. Group dynamics - Stages of group development, types of teams. Conflict management. 

Unit 2: Human Resource Management 
Human Resource planning- Job analysis- Job designing. Recruitment and selection – Training - orientation, Types of training, management development - Performance appraisal. Promotions and Transfers – Types, separation, absenteeism. Wage and salary administration- Types of wages, employee benefits. Employee welfare -Industry relations- Collective bargaining. Quality of work life - Grievance handling. 

Unit 3: Financial Management & Managerial Accounting 
Financial management objectives & functions – Financial statement analysis - balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement - Capital Structure, Determinants of size and composition of Capital Structure, Capital Structure Theories; Long term financing and Cost of CapitalWorking Capital Management, Determinants of Size and Composition of Working Capital, Cash and receivables management, Working Capital Management Theories,Financing of Working Capital- Financial planning and Forecasting, proforma statements - mergers & acquisition, Capital Budgeting, Undiscounted and Discounted methods of Investment Appraisal (Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit Cost (B-C) ratio analysis); Hybrid finance and lease finance - Indian Financial Institutions, markets and intermediaries, Dividend decision - venture capital financing and its stages, micro finance Importance of agricultural finance; rural credit structure-demand, supply, sources and forms - reforms in agricultural credit policy; innovations in agricultural financing - microfinance, Kisan credit cards - role of institutions in agri-finance - public and private sector banks; cooperatives, micro- finance institutions (MF1s), SHGs; Financial Accounting- Meaning, Need, Concepts and Conventions -Management AccountingMeaning, Functions, Scope, Utility, Limitations and Tools of Management Accounting - Cost Accounting – Nature, Significance of Cost Accounting; Classification of Cost, Marginal Costing and cost volume profit Analysis- Its Significance, Uses and Limitations -Budgeting and Profit Planning, Different Types of Budgets and their Preparations, Sales Budget, Purchase Budget, Production Budget, Cash Budget, Flexible Budget, Master Budget, Zero Based Budgeting. 

Unit 4: Marketing Management and International Marketing of Agri-products 
Agricultural marketing; interventions by institutions, regulated markets, buffer stock operations, price stabilization measures and policies, Forward trading and futures market; contract farming; cooperative and collective farming,Farmer Producer Organizations. Marketing of agricultural inputs, role of private sector in input and output marketing; Rural marketing. The Concepts of Marketing Management; Marketing Environment; Marketing Mix, Strategic Marketing, Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning; Market Competition Analysis - Consumer buying behavior - Marketing Information System - Marketing potential and demand forecasting, Classification of Products; Product Life Cycle; New Product Development; Product Line and Product Mix; Branding, Packaging and labeling -Factors affecting prices; Pricing Policies and Strategies; Pricing Methods-Types of Distribution Channels; Functions of Channel Members; Channel Management Decisions - Promotion Mix; Introduction to Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion, Publicity and Public Relations; managing integrated marketing promotion, Customer Relationship Management. Direct & E-marketing and cause related marketing. International Marketing: Meaning, nature and importance; International marketing environment. International Marketing Segmentation, targeting and Positioning: Screening and selection of markets; International marketing entry strategies. International Product and Pricing Strategies: Product standardization vs. adaptation; product life cycle, Factors affecting International price determination; Managing International Distribution and Distribution channel strategy. International promotion strategies: communications across countries, international promotion mix. International marketing decision making, implementation and control; ecological concerns and international marketing ethics. WTO, agri-exports, procedures for export; analysis of export markets, export promotion organizations, tools and techniques for optimizing the export functions. 

Unit 5: Operations management 
Nature and Scope of Production and Operations Management; Its relationship with Other Systems in the Organization -Facility location, capacity planning and Layouts, Types of Manufacturing Systems - Process design-Types of process and operations systems: continuous, custom, job shop, batch processing, assembly line. Process - product matrix. Production Planning and Control-Forecasting - Aggregate production planning – Production strategies-Level, chase and mixed strategy. Master production scheduling. Work study- Method and Time study, Maintenance management - Overview of Materials Management, Purchase Management, Determination of Material Requirement, Material Planning, MRP, MRP II - Enterprise Resources Planning. Inventory management, JIT, Pull and Push Systems, Kanban system. Quality Assurance, Acceptance Sampling, Statistical Process Control, Total Quality Management, BIS, ISO and AGMARK quality standards, HACCP procedure, Productivity Variables and Productivity Measurement, Reengineering, value engineering, Value Analysis, Waste and lean Management Logistics – Introduction, Scope, Functions and Objectives, Role of Logistics in competitive strategy, E- Logistics – Structure and Operation, Reverse logistics. 3 PL and 4 PL. Warehousing functions, Types- Material Handling and Storage Systems- Distribution Management – Strategies, Transportation system –Infrastructure, Networks and Transport economies. Packaging – Consumer and Industrial packaging. Supply chain – Fundamentals, Drivers - Decisions in Supply Chain. Supply chain coordination, Current Trends in Supply Chain Management – E business. IT Applications in SCM and value chain management 

Unit 6: Managerial economics 
Scope of managerial economics, objective of the firm and basic economic principles; Consumer theory. Demand analysis - meaning, types and determinants of demand; demand function; demand elasticity; demand forecasting-need and techniques. Production, cost and supply analysis- production function, least-cost input combination, factor productivities and returns to scale, cost concepts, cost-output relationship, Pricing-determinants of price-pricing under different market structures. Price discrimination- Factor prices-pricing under different market structures, government policies and pricing. National income; circular flow of income: consumption, investment and saving: money-functions, demand & supply; inflation; economic growth; business cycles and business policies; Recent developments in the national and international economic and agricultural scenarios. 

Unit 7: Research methods 
Objectives, types, and process of research; Problem formulation; formulation of hypothesis and testing - Scales of measurement; Sampling design, Types of sampling - Probability and nonprobability sampling techniques, sample size determination, sampling and non-sampling errors. Role and uses of quantitative techniques in business decision making, Data collection methods – sources of data – Data editing, coding tabulation – data analysis – statistical methods- Univariate and multivariate techniques - Report writing. 

Unit 8: Operations research 
Linear Programming: Objective, Assumptions, Formulation of Linear Programming Problem, Graphic Method, Simplex method; Transportation and Assignment Problems; Inventory control Models, Costs Involved in Inventory Management, Types of Inventory; Waiting Line Models: Waiting Line Problem, Characteristics of a Waiting Line System; Decision making under Risk and uncertainties, Decision tree ; Game Theory- Two -Person Zero-Sum Game; Simulation; Network analysis - Markov Chains. 

Unit 9: Agribusiness Environment and Policy 
Role of agriculture in Indian economy; problems and challenges related to farm supplies, farm production, agricultural finance, agro-processing, agricultural marketing, etc. in the country. Agribusiness - definition and nature, components of agribusiness management, changing dimensions of agribusiness. Micro and Macro environment in Agribusiness. Structure of Agriculture - Linkages among sub-sectors of the Agribusiness; economic reforms and Indian agriculture; impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization on Agri-business sector. Emerging trends in production, processing, marketing and exports; policy controls and regulations relating to the industrial sector with specific reference to agro-industries. Agribusiness policies- concept and formulation - Foreign investment policy in India: Types, advantages and disadvantages of FDI -Emerging trends in production, processing, marketing and exports. 

Unit 10: Strategic Management 
Corporate strategy, mission and objectives. Values, ethics, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance and strategy. Environment, competitor, industry and internal analysis - Generic strategies, vertical integration and capacity expansion, entry into new business and - growth and diversification strategies - Strategies during industry maturity and decline Strategy in fragmented industries - Strategy implementation. Strategy and managing change. Evaluation of corporate strategy – control, motivation, criteria, corrective action. 

Unit 11: Project Management and Entrepreneurship Development 
Concept, Characteristics of projects, types of projects, project identification, and Project’s life cycle - Project feasibility- market feasibility, technical feasibility, financial feasibility, and economic feasibility, social cost-benefit analysis, project risk analysis - Network Methods: Meaning, Network Analysis, Requirements for Network Analysis, Critical Path Method (CPM), Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), Project scheduling and resource allocation - Financial appraisal/evaluation techniques- Project implementation, Project control and information system. Entrepreneurship, Significance of entrepreneurship in economic development and qualities of entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship for Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (MSME); Innovation – sources and roles. Entrepreneurial Competencies; Steps involved in setting up of MSME. Establishing MSME Enterprises: Opportunities, Scanning-Choice of Enterprise; Market Assessment for MSME; Choice of Technology and Selection of Site. Enterprises-Getting organized: Financing New enterprises; sources and issues, preparation of business plan; ownership structure and organizational framework. Financial management; Technology and Business incubation process and services in India. Government policy for promotion of agribusiness entrepreneurship. Commercialization of technologies, Intellectual Property Rights – Types, and legislations. Management issues in MSMEs; Management Performance assessment and control; Strategies for stabilization and growth; Managing family enterprises.




Unit 1: Economic Theory 
Nature, Scope and methods of economics-Economic systems- Basic economics concepts in economics- Theory of consumer behaviour –cardinal utility approach-ordinal utility approachindifference curve analysis-income and substitution effect-derivation of demand – applications of indifference curve analysis- revealed preference hypothesis- elasticity of demand and determinants-consumer surplus- Neo-classical theory of Production- Production function – Isoquants – Properties – homogenous production functions and Returns to scale - Technical progress– definition and types. -Profit maximization –Neoclassical theory of costs – Derivation of various types of cost curves- Cost minimization vs. profit maximization. Modern theory of costs-Derivation of supply and lay of supply-producer’s surplus. Market classification-pure and perfect competition. Characteristics and price determination under perfect and imperfect markets (monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition)-- Theory of income distribution and factor shares- General Equilibrium theory- Pareto optimality- Social welfare function- National income-concepts and measurement methods- Theory of employmentclassical. Keynesian and post Keynesian theories of income determination. Consumption, Investment and saving functions-Concept of multipliers and accelarators- general equilibrium of product and money markets-IS and LM framework-inflation-types and control measures, Monetary and fiscal policies-instruments and effectiveness. 

Unit 2: Economic and Agricultural Development 
Concept of economic development and economic growth-indicators and measurement-Criteria and characteristics of developing nations-economic and non-economic factors of economic growth-, stages and theories of economic development- economic growth models-classical and neo-classical growth models, role of state, markets and civil society in economic development, institutions and economic development, international development institutionsObjective and processes for economic planning in India, economic and trade reforms in India. Role of agriculture in economic development, theories of agricultural development, agricultural policies (price, land, credit, R&D, trade, subsidy, etc.)-agricultural development issues-poverty, inequality, unemployment and environmental degradation-agricultural development programmes in India, issues of water, energy, environment, food and nutrition security, agro-eco -regional planning, assessment of ecosystem services, farm-non-farm linkages. 

Unit 3: Public Finance and International Economics 
Public Finance: Public and private finance. General principles of public finance. Principle of maximum social advantage. Public revenue. Incidence of tax and financial policies. Public expenditure and economic development. Balanced and unbalanced budgets. Limitations of fiscal policies. Fiscal policy as an instrument of development. Structure of development taxation. Public debt policy and economic development, international Economics: Principle of comparative advantage. Factor endowment theory, Balance of payments. . Trade with many goods and countries; Leontief paradox; human skills; technological gaps; the product cycleTrade policy: Protection; tariff and non-tariff measures; trade and market structure; trade liberalisation; factor mobility and movements; role of multinational enterprises. National competitive advantage – Porter’s diamondProblems of international monetary systems, Foreign trade and foreign capital. Export promotion and input substitution. Past experiences and future strategies. 

Unit 4: Farm Management Economics 
Definition of farm management and its relationship to technical and social sciences. Characteristics of modern farming. Role and functions of farm management under Indian condition. Measurement of management. Measures of farm efficiency. Cost concepts. Evaluation of farm assets and liabilities. Decision theory and decision making models. Decision making under different knowledge situations. Tools and techniques in farm decision making. Farm planning and budgeting-sources of data and illustration. Linear programming. Problem formulation in farm planning. Farm records and accounts. Farm inventory with applications to farming enterprises. Farm cost accounting for managerial analysis. Management of farm resources-land, labour, capital and machinery. Review of farm management research, education and extension in relation to changing needs. Systems approach in agriculture. Farming systems, identification of farming system inputs and outputs, sub-systems and the circuitry connecting these systems. Systems analysis to find out needed changes in policies and programmes. 

Unit 5: Agricultural Production Economics 
Nature and scope of agricultural production economics vis-à-vis farm management. Relative importance of farm production economics and farm management in developed and developing countries. Economics of farm production- resource allocation and use under static and dynamic conditions. Resource — product relationships in agriculture. Types of production functions, frontiers technical and allocative efficiency. General rules of their economics application. Technological change and production function analysis. Principles of choice and allocation of resources. Resource combination and cost minimization economies of scale and economies of size. Types of risk in agriculture, resource allocation and enterprise combination under risk and risk diffusion mechanisms. Nature of costs and family farm theory. Returns to scale and farm size. Dualities between production, cost and profit functions; Derivation of supply and factor demand functions from production and profit functions. 

Unit 6: Agricultural Finance and Co-operation 
Role of credit in agriculture and rural development. Estimates of agricultural credit requirements-investment, production, marketing and consumption. Role of public and private section banks and cooperatives in development financing. Classification of agricultural credit. Rural credit structure. Principles of agricultural finance and financial management. Agricultural finance as a part of public finance. Nexus between commercial banks and cooperative credit institutions. Recent innovations in extension of credit to agriculture. Rural credit supply and credit gap. Multiagency approach and coordination of credit structure at different levels. Agriculture credit policy. Principles and practices of cooperation. Success and failure of cooperative sector in India. Credit and non-credit institutions. National federations of cooperative organizations. Review of reforms in cooperative structure. Single window approach in agricultural input supply and output marketing. Bureaucracy and cooperatives. Management of cooperative institutions. Professionalization and revitalization of cooperatives. Role of cooperatives under new economic policy Risks in financing agriculture. Risk management strategies and coping mechanism. Crop Insurance programmes – review of different crop insurance schemes – yield loss and weather based insurance and their applications. 

Unit 7: Agricultural Marketing 
Nature and scope of marketing in a developing economy. Classification of markets. Problems of marketing agricultural produce. Functions of marketing. Marketable surplus and marketed surplus. Channels of marketing agricultural produce and price spread Market Sructure, Conduct and Performance (SCP). Marketing institutions, their role and functions. Regulated markets and other state interventions in agricultural marketing. Role of commission on agriculture cost and prices and parastatal organizations in agricultural marketing. Cooperative marketing. Marketing practices and cost-marketing of grains, pulses, commercial crops, fruits, vegetables, livestock and livestock products and inputs. Processing, transportation, storage and warehousing, equity aspects of marketing. Marketing efficiency. Marketing finance-methods and practices. Forward trading and speculation. Future markets. Market management. Agricultural price analysis. Seasonal and spatial variations in prices in agricultural price policy. Agricultural exports, problems and prospects. Role of information technology and telecommunication in agricultural marketing. 

Unit 8: Agricultural Project Analysis 
Definition of project in agriculture. Need for project approach for agricultural development. Project cycle. Project identification and formulation. Project appraisal-ex-ante and ex-post. Projection worth measures-discounting techniques,net work techniques –PERT and CPM. Project monitoring and mid-course corrections. Project funding. 

Unit 9: Research Methodology and Econometrics
Agricultural economics research, steps and themes, collection and analysis of data, scientific report writing., econometric and statistical methods, sampling methods, probability theory. Multiple regression analysis, ordinary and generalized least squares estimators, BLUE, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, auto correlation, dummy variables. Simultaneous equation methods




Unit 1: General Concepts of Water Resources Management 
Water Resources of India, their Development; History of irrigation in India; Major irrigation projects in India; Type of Water-Green/Blue/Grey; Water Resources Distribution. Present Water requirement and needs for future in different Sectors. Rainfall(South-west monsoon, north-east monsoon, winter and hot weather period); Water budget of India; Irrigation Legislationinterstate water dispute, Concept of Water Pricing, Sustainable use and management of Water Resources, Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and its availability in space and time, Interlinking of rivers.

 Unit 2: Soil Water Plant and Atmosphere Relationships
Soil characteristics in relation to profile and soil horizon, Soil water potential, its various components and method of their measurements. Movement of water in soils and its measurement, Properties of soil in relation to irrigation. Physical, Chemical, Biological Properties of Water; Plant water relations and role of water in plants,water loss through transpiration and factors affecting it, its measurement and the factors influencing it, Water stress in plants and its effect on growth, quality and yield. Water relationship of cell and whole plant, Water uptake by plants and its movement mechanism. Weather parameters influencing soilwater-plant relations and its measurements, Water footprint. 

Unit 3: Crop Water Requirement 
Concepts of crop water requirements, irrigation planning and its factors, factors affecting irrigation water requirement. Soil Moisture Constant and its management, Soil Moisture Characteristics Curve, Soil Moisture Measurement; methods and its constraints, Introduction to Methods of estimation of reference evapo-transpiration and crop consumptive use, soil and land irritability assessment, Water Productivity, Concept of field water balance, various components of field water balance their estimation of crop planning in relation to changing scenario of input availability, Estimation of seasonal and annual water requirement of various field crops, progressive peak and seasonal consumptive water use and their significance in operation of irrigation projects. 

Unit 4: Soil and Water Conservation 
Concept of Soil and Water conservation, Relevance of soil and water conservation in Agriculture, Problems caused by soil erosion, factors affecting soil erosion, Types of soil erosion, mechanics of water and wind erosion, Erosivity and Erodibility, Measurement of soil erosion, Hydraulic jump and energy dissipater for erosion central structures, design of Soil and Water Conservation Structures-Drop structures, Drop-inlet Spillway, Chute Spillways; Farm ponds and temporary storage reservoirs,. Sediment yield and transport, water detention structures. 

Unit 5: Hydrology and Watershed Management 
Hydrological cycle, Precipitation; types and forms, characteristics, Rainfall measurement and analysis, Abstraction/Initial loss from precipitation, Principles of Evaporation and its measurement Rainfall-Runoff Relationship, Stream flow measurement, Hydrographs, flood routing. Concept of watershed, principles and objectives, characterization, priority watershed, integrated watershed management, Water harvesting technique small storage and traditional methods, Integrated watershed management, people participation; Watershed management programme in the country-overview, planning and guidelines success and failures, economic evaluation, watershed policy formulation for planning and management, evaluation and environmental assessment, watershed policy formulation for planning and management, Extension strategy, RRA, PRA and PAR, economic issues, institutions and water users associations. 

Unit 6: Irrigation Water Management & Drainage 
Measurement of irrigation water, application and distribution efficiencies; Management of water resources (rain, canal and ground water) for agricultural production; Management of irrigation water; Concepts of irrigation scheduling, Different approaches of irrigation scheduling; Soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters; Concept of critical stages of crop growth in relation to water supplies; crop coefficients, Methods of irrigation viz. surface methods, merits and demerits of various methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods, Conjunctive use of irrigation water, irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, Irrigation efficiencies; Canal water Distribution, Design of irrigation structures. Drainage- concepts and classsification; Field drainage system with special emphasis on crop production and soil salinity. Inter relationship of drainage with cropping patterns and types of farming; Drainage requirement of crops and method of field drainage , their layout and spacing. 

Unit 7: Management and Remediation of Poor quality Soil and Water 
Irrigation water quality, rating and suitability; Eutrophication, Management of brackish water for irrigation, Salt Balance, Area and distribution of problem soil – acidic, saline, sodic and physically degraded soils;origin and basic concept of problematic soils, and factors responsible for it. Morphological features and of saline, sodic and saline-sodic soils; Basic Concept of Soluble salts, ESP, pH, physical, chemical and microbiological properties. Acid soils–nature of soil acidity, sources of soil acidity, effect on plant growth, lime requirement. Management of acid soils. Management of saline and sodic soils; salt tolerance of crops – mechanism and rating; monitoring of soil salinity in the field. 

Unit 8: Basics of pressurized irrigation system 
Introduction to Micro- Irrigation, Merits and Demerits of Micro Irrigation, Scope and Applications of Micro Irrigation,Types & components of Micro-Irrigation Systems -Drip, Sprinkler, Sub-Surface, Bubbler; Basic Design, operation and maintenance of Sprinkler System. Fertigation System. 

Unit 9: Rainfed Agriculture 
Prospects of rainfed agriculture, climate change and its impact, characterization of rainfed areas, moisture stress and low productivity, rainfall analysis, dry and wet spells, Application of Remote Sensing in rainfed farming, Resource conservation techniques, Drought- types and constraints , Drought resistance in crops, mechanism for drought tolerance and crop adaptability to drought situations, Soil moisture conservation and utilization, moisture retention and availability concepts, water adsorption by plants under stress conditions. Water loss through evaporation and transpiration, conservation tillage, irrigation techniques, mulches and evaporation suppressant its management under stress conditions, mulches, anti-transparent – their kinds, effectiveness and economics. 

Unit 10: Ground Water Management, Wells and Pumps 
Scope of groundwater development, Aquifer types, properties and parameters, Principles of groundwater flow, Management of declining and rising water table, Natural and artificial groundwater recharge, Groundwater recharge basins and injection wells, Groundwater management in irrigation command, conjunctive water use, water lifting, different types of pumps, selection of pumps, pump characteristics curve, cost of groundwater pumping.




Unit 1: General Chemistry 
Surface chemistry, pH, Buffer solutions; Redox reactions, Chemical kinetics, Stereochemistry and chirality, diastereoisomerism, tautomerism, atropisomerism, asymmetric synthesis, nomenclature of organic molecules, displacement, elimination, addition, rearrangement, SN1 and SN2 reactions, reaction involving free radicals, and carbene intermediates, Organic reagents and catalysts in organic synthesis,. Beckmann, Claisen condensation, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction, Petrno-Buchi reaction, Curlius, Michael, Kolbes, Arndt-Eistert and Wittig reaction. Reformatsky reaction., Barton reaction, Umpolung reaction, Norrish Type I & II reactions. 

Unit 2: Chromatography and Spectroscopic Techniques 
Basic principles and application of chromatography; column, paper, thin layer, and ion exchange chromatography; gas liquid chromatography (GLC); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); UV, FTIR; NMR and mass spectroscopy; GC-MS and LC-MS techniques and their applications. 

Unit 3: Chemistry of Natural Products 
Extraction of natural products; Classification, structure, chemistry, properties and function of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, nucleic acids, vitamins, lipids, and polymers. Chemisty of terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics, plant pigments, steroidal and triterpenic saponins and sapogenins; juvenile and moulting hormones; Plant derived nutraceuticals; Chemistry of natural antioxidants and food colorants and their application in human and crop health. Biosynthetic pathways of natural products. 

Unit 4 : Naturally Occurring Insecticides 
Natural pyrethroids, nicotine, rotenone, neem and karanj based botanical pesticides; microbial macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins), agricultural antibiotics, semiochemicals; insect pheromones-types and uses, insect hormones, insect growth regulators; Plant hormones, phytoalexins, essential oils and their pest control properties; advantages and limitations of natural pesticides; juvenile hormones, juvenile hormone mimics and anti-JH; chemosterilants, insect antifeedants, insect attractants and repellents; microbial pesticides; Application of plant biotechnology in crop protection, herbicide tolerant and insect resistant transgenic plants 

Unit 5: Synthetic Insecticides, Fungicides, Nematicides and Rodenticides 
History, scope and principles of chemical insect control; Insecticides and their classification Chemistry of major groups of insecticides (organo-chlorine, organo-phosphorus, organocarbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, neonicotinoids), fungicides (inorganics, dithiocarbamates, OP’s, phenols, quinines, carboxamides, azoles, methoxyacrylates), rodenticides, Insect growth regulators; Chitin synthesis inhibitors, insecticide synergists, fumigants. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides, fungicides and nematicides. 

Unit 6: Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators 
Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of herbicides (pheoxyacids, carbamates, amides, tiazines, phenyl ureas, dinitroanilines, bipyridiliums, sulfonyl ureas), Herbicide safeners, Plant growth regulators – auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid; Brassinolides; Mode of action of different groups of herbicides. 

Unit 7: Agrochemical Formulations 
Basic concepts of pesticide formulation - classification, solid and liquid formulations; preparation, properties, uses; controlled release formulations; Formulants - carriers/ diluents, surfactants, encapsulants, binders, antioxidants, stabilizers; Application - devices and quality of deposits; Types of spray appliances, seed treatment and dressing; nanotechnology in crop protection, Tools to develop and measure nanoparticles. 

Unit 8: Pesticide Residues and their Dynamics in the Environment 
Pesticide residues- concepts and toxicological significance; pesticide dynamics in agro ecosystem, biotic and abiotic transformations affecting fate of pesticides. Experimental design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates; Application of ELISA and radiotracer techniques in pesticide residue analysis; new cleanup techniques, QUECHERS, ASE (Accelerated solvent extraction); Multi-residue methods; Bound and conjugated residues; Method validation - linearity, LOD and LOQ, microbial and photochemical degradation, adsorption/ desorption, leaching in soil. 

Unit 9: Agrochemicals – Regulation and Quality Control 
Production, consumption and trade statistics of pesticides and fertilizers; banned and restricted pesticides, registration and quality control of insecticides; Laws, Acts and Rules governing registration and regulations of agrochemical production and use; key provisions of the Insecticides Act (1968), Environmental Protection Act (1986). Pesticide Management Bill, EPA, Food Safety and Standards Act, WHO, FAO, CODEX and national/international guidelines; Quality Control, Sanitary/phyto-sanitary issues in relation to food safety, good laboratory practices, Accreditation certificate, Pesticide stewardship. (at PG level syllabus-SRF). 

Unit 10: Natural Resource Management 
Soil, plant and microbial biodiversity, Characteristics and classification of natural resources; Major soil groups of India their characteristics, management strategies for natural resources; integrated pest and pesticide management; Essential plant nutrients (major, secondary and micro), organic manures (farm yard, compost, sewage sludge, green manure, biogas slurries, etc); production and manufacture and uses of various nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures, liquid fertilizers, biofertilizers, integrated plant nutrient systems; benefits, disadvantages and environmental toxicity. Nitrification inhibitors to enhance nitrogen use efficiency, Hydrogels and their application in agriculture, soil conditioners and amendments, toxicity issues. 

Unit 11: Environment Pollution: Implications and Remediation 
Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution; Adverse effects of pesticides on micro-flora, fauna and on other non-target organisms; Effect of pesticide on soil health, persistent organic pollutants, and their effect on ecosystem. Adverse effect of industrial effluent on the soil and aquatic environment; disposal of obsolete and outdated pesticides; physical, chemical and microbial decontamination and detoxification of pesticides. Agrochemicals and homeland security, misuse of agrochemicals (pesticides and fertilizers), hazard mitigation plans or strategies, analytical and bioassay techniques to assess off-farm migration of agrochemicals into natural waters, ozone depletion causing agrochemicals. 

Unit 12: Data Analysis 
Methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation, standard error, accuracy and precision, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and regression; t-test, chisquare (X2), F test, Probit analysis.




Unit 1: Pedology 
Concept of land, soil and soil science. Composition of earth crust and its relationship with soils; Rocks, minerals and other soil forming materials; Weathering of rocks and minerals; Factors of soil formation; Pedogenic processes and their relationships with soil properties; Soil development; Pedon, polypedon, soil profile, horizons and their nomenclature. Soil Taxonomy - epipedons, diagnostic subsurface horizons and other diagnostic characteristics, soil moisture and temperature regimes, Interpretation of soil survey data for land capability and crop suitability classifications, Fertility Capability Classification- Nutrient indexing. Macro-morphological study of soils. Application and use of global positioning system for soil survey. Soil survey- types and techniques. Soil series characterization and procedure for establishing soil series, benchmark soils and soil correlations. Study of base maps: cadastral maps, toposheets, aerial photographs and satellite imageries. Use of geographical information system for preparing thematic maps. Application of Remote Sensing in soil survey and mapping. Soils of India 

Unit 2: Soil Physics 
Significance of soil physical properties. Soil texture – Stoke’s Law- textural classes. Soil structure – classification, soil aggregation and significance, soil consistency, bulk density and particle density of soils and porosity, their significance and manipulation. Soil water- retention and potentials. Soil moisture constants. Movement of soil water- saturated and unsaturated flowDarcy’s law - hydraulic conductivity - infiltration, percolation, permeability, drainage and methods of determination of soil moisture. Thermal properties of soils, soil temperature. Soil aircomposition, gaseous exchange, influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth. Soil physical constraints affecting crop production and their management strategies.Methods of soil analysis - particle size distribution, bulk and particle density, moisture constants. Soil erosion - types, effects,. Rain erosivity and soil erodibility. Runoff - methods of measurement, factors and management. Soil conservation measures. Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality indicators; Causes of land degradation; Management of soil physical properties for prevention/restoration of land degradation; management of waste lands; Concept of watershed – its characterization and management. 

Unit 3: Soil Chemistry 
Chemical composition of soil; Soil colloids - structure, composition, constitution of clay minerals, amorphous clays and other non-crystalline silicate minerals, oxide and hydroxide minerals; Charge development on clays and organic matter; pH-charge relations; Buffer capacity of soils. Inorganic and organic colloids- surface charge characteristics, diffuse double layer, zeta potential. Soil organic matter fractionation, humus formation and theories clay-organic interactions. Cation exchange – Hysteresis-definition. Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and ammonium fixation in soils and management aspects. 

Unit 4: Soil Fertility 
Essential elements in plant nutrition; Nutrient cycles in soil; Transformation and movement of nutrients (Macro and micro nutrients) in soil; Manures and fertilizers; Fate and reactions of fertilizers in soils; Slow release fertilizers and nitrification retarders- Soil fertility evaluationConcepts and approaches ;. FCO Soil fertility evaluation – soil testing, plant and tissue tests and biological methods; Common soil test methods for fertilizer recommendation; Nutrient Management concepts- INM, IPNS, SSNM- Soil test-crop response correlations; Fertilizer application methods- Nutrient use efficiency- Macro and micronutrients. Nature, properties and development of acid, acid sulphate, saline and alkali soils and their management; Lime and gypsum requirements of soils; Irrigation water quality - EC, SAR, RSC. Fertility status of soils of India. Pollution: types, causes, and management. Carbon sequestration and carbon trading. Modern methods of soil, plant and fertilizer analysis; Flame photometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; Spectrophotometry - visible, ultra-violet and infrared; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Potentiometry and conductimetry; X-ray diffractometry; Mass spectrometry. 

Unit 5: Soil Microbiology 
Soil biota, soil microbial ecology, types of organisms. Soil microbial biomass, microbial interactions, unculturable soil biota. Microbiology and biochemistry of root-soil interface. Phyllosphere. Soil enzymes, origin, activities and importance. Soil characteristics influencing growth and activity of microflora. Microbial transformations of N, P, K, S, Fe and Zn in soil. Biochemical composition and biodegradation of soil organic matter and crop residues. Humus formation. Cycles of important organic nutrients. Biodegradation of pesticides, organic wastes and their use for production of biogas and manures. Biofertilizers – definition, classification, specifications, method of production and role in crop production. 

Unit 6: Statistics 
Experimental designs for pot culture and field experiments; Statistical measures of central tendency and dispersion; Correlation and regression; Tests of significance - t and F tests; Computer use in soil research, Geostatistics.




Unit 1: Crop Ecology and Geography 
Principles of crop ecology; Ecosystem-concept and determinants of crop productivity; Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation to ecological optima; Crop adaptation; Climate shift and its ecological implication; Greenhouse effect; Agro-ecological and agro climatic regions of India; Geographical distribution of cereals, legumes, oilseeds, vegetables, fodders and forages, commercial crops, condiments and spices, medicinal and aromatic plants; Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity; Photosynthesis, respiration, net assimilation, solar energy conversion efficiency and relative water content, light intensity, water and CO2 in relation to photosynthetic rates and efficiency; Physiological stress in crops, detection and indices; Remote sensing: Spectral indices and their application in agriculture. 

Unit 2: Weed Management 
Scope and principles of weed management; Weed classification, biology, ecology and allelopathy; Weed seed dormancy, Crop weed competition, weed threshold; Herbicides classification, formulations, mode of action, selectivity and resistance; Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants; Application methods and equipment; Cultural, physical, chemical and biological weed control, bio-herbicides: Integrated weed management; Special weeds, parasitic and aquatic weeds and their management in cropped and non-cropped lands; weed control schedules in field crops, vegetables and plantation crops; Role of Genetically Modified (GM) crops in weed management. 

Unit 3: Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use 
History of soil fertility and fertilizer use; Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, their critical concentrations in plants, nutrient interactions, diagnostic techniques with special emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micro-nutrients; Soil fertility and productivity and their indicators; Fertilizer materials including liquid fertilizers, their composition, mineralization, availability and reaction in soils; Water solubility of phosphate fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and their use for crop production; Principles and methods of fertilizer application including fertigation; Integrated nutrient management and bio-fertilizers; Agronomic and physiological efficiency and recovery of applied plant nutrients; Criteria for determining fertilizer schedules for cropping systems - direct, residual and cumulative effects; Fertilizer related environmental problems including ground water pollution; Site-specific nutrient management. 

Unit 4: Dryland Agronomy 
Concept of dryland farming; dryland farming Vs rainfed farming; History, development, significance and constraints of dryland agriculture in India; Climatic classification and delineation of dryland tracts; Characterization of agro-climatic environments of drylands; Rainfall analysis and length of growing season; Types of drought, effect on plant growth, drought resistance, drought avoidance, drought management; Crop Planning including contingency, crop diversification, varieties, cropping systems and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather conditions; Techniques of moisture conservation in-situ to reduce evapotranspiration, runoff and to increase infiltration; Rain water harvesting and recycling concept, techniques and practices; Summer ploughing, seed hardening, pre-monsoon sowing, weed and nutrient management; Concept and importance of watershed management in dryland areas. 

Unit 5: Crop Production 
Crop production techniques for cereals, millets, pulses /grain legumes, oilseeds, fiber crops, sugarcane, tobacco, fodder and pasture crops including origin, history, distribution, adaptation, climate, soil, season, modern varieties, seed rate, fertilizer requirements, crop geometry, intercultural operations, water requirement, weed control, harvest, quality components, industrial use, economics and post-harvest technology. Package of practices in the respective locations. 

Unit 6: Agricultural Statistics 
Frequency distribution, standard error and deviation, correlation and regression analyses, coefficient of variation; Tests of significancet test, F test and chi-square (x2); Data transformation and missing plot techniques; Design of experiments and their basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, split plot, strip-plot, factorial and simple confounding designs; Efficiency of designs; Methods of statistical analysis for cropping systems including intercropping; Pooled analysis. 

Unit 7 : Sustainable Land Use Systems 
Tillage - Concept, types, tilth, tools and implements; Modern concepts of tillage and conservation agriculture; Land capability classification, Alternate land use and Agro forestry systems; Types, extent and causes of wasteland; Shifting cultivation; Concept of sustainability; Sustainability parameters and indicators; Agricultural and agro-industrial residues and its recycling. 

Unit 8: Soil-Plant-Water Relationship 
Importance of water in agriculture; Hydrological cycle; runoff and infiltration, factors affecting infiltration; Soil water relations, water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent wilting point, plant available water and extractable water; Soil irrigability classifications, Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its components; Movement of soil water-saturated and unsaturated water flow; Evapotranspiration (ET), PET, AET and its measurements. Crop co-efficient; Plant water relations: Concept of plant water potential, its components; Methods of moisture estimation in plants. Soil and water conservation – measures – agronomical, mechanical and agrostological. 

Unit 9: Irrigation Water Management 
History of irrigation in India; Major irrigation projects in India; Water resource development; Crop water requirements; Concepts of irrigation scheduling, Different approaches of irrigation scheduling; Concept of critical stages of crop growth in relation to water supplies; Methods of irrigation viz. surface, subsurface and pressurized irrigation methods, merits and demerits; Measurement of irrigation water, application and distribution efficiencies. Conjunctive use of water; Interaction between irrigation and fertilizers. 

Unit 10: Management of Problematic Soils and Crop Production
 Problem soils and their distribution in India, acidic, saline, waterlogged and mined- soils; Response of crop to acidity, salinity, excess water and nutrient imbalances; Reclamation of problem soils, role of amendments and drainage; Crop production techniques in problem soils – crops, varieties, cropping system and agronomic practices; Degraded lands and their rehabilitation. Management strategies for flood prone areas; Drainage for improving water logged soils for crop production; Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and poor quality water for agricultural. 

Unit 11: Cropping and Farming Systems and Organic Farming 
Cropping system – Definition, principles, classification; Cropping system for different ecosystem; Interaction and indices; Non-monetary inputs and low cost technologies.LEIA, HEIA and LEISA;Farming systems – type – natural, bio-dynamic, bio-intensive, response, precision, biological and organic farming; organic and bio inputs, Soil health and organic matter and Integrated organic farming systems; IFS – concepts, models for different ecosystem, resource recycling and evaluation.




Unit 1: Basic Physics 
Conservation of mass, energy and momentum; Forces in nature; Measurement of heat, specific heat, transfer of heat; Huygen’s principle, reflection, refraction, diffraction, polarization, interference and scattering of light waves; Optics theory, principles of optical instruments; Change of phase and polarization, equation of state, Laws of thermodynamics; Free energy, Entropy and concept of negative entropy; Vont Hoff’s law; Cathode rays; Radio activity, alpha-, beta-, and gamma- rays, detection and measurement of radiation; Properties of X-rays; Bragg’s law; Nuclear fission, fusion, nuclear reactions, neutron moderation, nuclear energy, atomic power; Radioactivity and its applications in agriculture. 

Unit 2: Soil Physics 
Factors and processes of soil formation; Physical, physicochemical and biological properties of soils; Soil water retention and movement under saturated and unsaturated conditions; Infiltration, redistribution and evaporation of soil water; Field water balance and water use efficiency; Soil aeration; Thermal properties of soil and heat transport; Influence of soil water, temperature and aeration on crop growth and their management; Soil erosion and control; Soil physical constraints and their management.. 

Unit 3: Radiation Physics 
Basics of Electromagnetic spectrum and its interaction with matter; Laws of radiation, scattering, reflection, transmission, absorption, emission, diffuse and specular radiations; Radiation units, flux, intensity, emittance, inter conversion of radiometric units; Energy balance of land surfaces. 

Unit 4: Plant Biophysics and Nano Technology
Introduction and scope of biophysics; Structure and properties of water; Experimental techniques used for separation and characterization of biomolecules sedimentation, ultracentrifugation, diffusion, osmosis, viscosity, polarization and electrophoresis, chromatography; Fibre physics; Basic Spectroscopic techniques, UV-Visible, IR, NMR, EPR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Nanostructures, Properties and characterization of nanomaterials; Nano-biology, hazards of nanomaterial; Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. 

Unit 5: Remote sensing 
Electromagnetic radiation, and interactions with the matter, remote sensing system – active and passive, sensor and platform; Radiometric quantities; Spectral signatures of natural targets and its physical basis, spectral indices; Satellite characteristics, spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions; Air borne remote sensing; Imaging and non-imaging systems; Multispectral, hyperspectral, thermal and microwave remote sensing; Digital image processing; National and International satellite systems for land, weather, ocean and other observations; Applications of remote sensing in agriculture. 

Unit 6: Geoinformatics 
Basic concepts and principles: Hardware and software requirements; Common terminologies of geographic information system (GIS); Maps and projections, principles of cartography; Basic geodesy: Geiod /Datum/Ellipsoid; Cartographic projections, coordinate systems, types and scales; Accuracy of maps; Raster and Vector data model; DBMS; Geostatistical analyses; Spatial interpolation - Thiessen polygon; Inverse square distance; Digital Elevation Model; Principles of GPS; DGPS; Errors in GPS data and correction; GPS constellations; Geoinformatics application in agriculture and natural resource management. 

Unit 7: Atmospheric physics 
Weather and climate: Atmosphere and its constituents; Meteorological elements and their measurements; Heat balance of the earth and atmosphere; Climatic classification systems; climatology of India, agro- ecological regions; Monsoon, western disturbances, cyclones, droughts; Wind system, precipitation, cloud, pressure pattern. Atmospheric stability; Weather forecasting: numerical weather prediction; El Nino, La Nina and ENSO; Climate change, global warming, impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems; Physiological response of crop plants to weather (light, temperature, CO2, moisture and solar radiation); Heat units, thermal time and thermal use-efficiency and their applications; Micro-, meso- and macro-climates; Exchange of mass, momentum and energy between surface and atmosphere, exchange coefficients; Richardson number & Reynold’s analogy; Boundary layer; Eddy covariance techniques; Wind profile; Modification of microclimate; Radiation distribution within the plant canopy; Concept of evapotranspiration: potential, reference and actual evapotranspiration, crop coefficient; Measurement of evapotranspiration. 

Unit 8: Mathematical Modelling of soil-plant-atmosphere system 
Applications of matrices: Differentiation and integration; Numerical modelling: finite difference and finite element; Spatial statistics: Variogram and interpolation techniques; Surface modelling; Root water uptake models; Simulation models for water, heat, and solute movement in two- and three dimensional porous media; Fundamentals of dynamic simulation, systems, models and simulation; Mechanistic, stochastic and deterministic models; Model calibration, validation and sensitivity analysis; Crop weather models and its use in crop yield estimation; Advantage and limitations of modelling.

Offer: Join BAO 2024 Paper 2, Get 50% Off. Hurry up! Limited time offer.

Introduction to Agrimly

Blinking Image

Popular Posts

Subjects Wise Information