Notice Board

Exam Pattern & Syllabus of Punjab PSC ADO Agriculture Development Officer (Group-A) Recruitment 2022-2023

Punjab Public Service Commission

Baradari Garden, Patiala - 147001

**Punjab PSC ADO **Agriculture Development Officer (Group-A) Recruitment 2022-2023

*Punjab PSC ADO* in the Department of Agriculture and Welfare of Farmers, Punjab is in following sequence:-

Exam Pattern of Punjab PSC ADO

(A) One Written Test : 480 Marks

Total Qs : 120 questions

Duration of Exam : 2 hours

Qs type: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Marking : 4 marks for each correct answer 

(B) Interview : 60 Marks

Total Marks for selection : 540 Marks

Pattern of Written Test for Punjab PSC ADO:

  • Part A - Agriculture Knowledge Subject : 100 MCQs (480 Marks)
  • Part B - General Knowledge, Logical Reasoning & Mental Ability - 20 MCQs (80 Marks)
  • Total questions : 120 MCQs (480 marks) 

Duration of exam : 2 hours

Negative marking : 1 Mark for each question in the written test

Wrongly or not answered questions : 0

Candidates will be permitted to raise objections if any. 

The important points to note for PPSC ADO Exam: 

  • I. The Question Paper will be in English language only. 
  • II. Each question carries 4 (four) marks and, for each correct answer candidate will get  4 (four) marks
  • III. There will be Negative Marking (One Mark for each question) in the written  examination for questions wrongly answered i.e. for each incorrect answer, 1 (One) mark will be deducted from the total score. 
  • IV. To answer a question, the candidate has to find, for each question, the correct answer/best option. 
  • V. Answer key will be uploaded on the PPSC website (after written examination), and the  candidates will be permitted to raise objections (if any). Candidates will be given four days to deliberate before putting up the objections. 
  • VI. Unanswered/Unattempted questions will be given no marks. In case, a question is  withdrawn, all candidates will be given four (04) marks irrespective of the fact whether the question has been attempted or not attempted by the candidate. 

Daily Live Classes for Punjab ADO at Agri Coaching Online App

Syllabus of subject for the posts of Punjab Agriculture Development Officer is as under (B.Sc. (Agriculture) level ) :-

Part-A (Subject) : Agriculture - 100 MCQs (400 Marks)

  • Basic knowledge of Agronomy 
  • Soil Science 
  • Plant Breeding 
  • Entomology
  • Plant  Pathology
  • Extension Education. 
  • Growth and development of crops
  • Weather and climate 
  • Crop  classification. 
  • Farm tools and implements. 
  • Calculations on seed rate, plant population, fertilizer,  herbicide, irrigation requirement, land measurements, etc. 
  • Technologies for improved cultural  practices for different field crops starting from seeding to grain maturation. 
  • Field preparation,  sowing methods, time of sowing, etc. Efficient management practices for tillage, fertilization,  irrigation and drainage, weed control, nutrient recycling, mulches and crop residue management  
  • Crop rotation, multiple cropping, mixed cropping, intercropping.
  • Crop diversification.
  • Precision  agriculture. 
  • Integrated farming system. 
  • Organic farming and sustainable agriculture. 
  • Seed  production of different field crops. 
  • Integrated disease and pest management in field crops

Part-B  (Subject) : General Knowledge, Logical Reasoning & Mental Ability - 20 MCQs (80 Marks)

(a) General Knowledge & Current affairs

  • General Knowledge and Current affairs of National and International importance  including:  
  • (i) Economic issues. 
  • (ii) Polity issues. 
  • (iii) Environment issues. 
  • (iv) Geography. 
  • (v) Science and Technology.  
  • (vi) Any other current issues. 
  • (vii) (a) History of India with special reference to the Indian freedom struggle movement. (b) History of Punjab- 14th century onwards. 

(b) Logical Reasoning, Mental Ability & Quantitative Aptitude. 

  • (i) Logical reasoning, analytical and mental ability. 
  • (ii) Basic numerical skills, numbers, magnitudes, percentage, numerical relation  appreciation. 
  • (iii) Data analysis, Graphic presentation charts, tables, spreadsheets. 


Punjab PSC ADO Job Recruitment 2022-23 Notification out for 200 Posts

Punjab Public Service Commission

Baradari Garden, Patiala. 147001

Agriculture Development Officer (Group-A)

About Punjab PSC ADO Recruitment 2022-23 Notification out for 200 Posts

  • Regarding Recruitment to 200 Posts of Agriculture Development Officer (Group-A) in the Department Of Agriculture and Farmers  Welfare, Government Of Punjab.on the official website i.e. on 9th December 2022. Interested candidates can apply online from 9th December 2022.

Punjab ADO Recruitment Details :-

  • In this article, we are providing you with detailed information for the Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022 which includes the notification, vacancy or post details, important dates of exam , eligibility criteria of exam, application fees, the direct link to the application, and many more details. Students must bookmark this page for more details regarding the Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022.

1. Introduction of Punjab ADO 

  • The Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC) has been established under Article 315 of  the Constitution of India, with the basic purpose of recruiting officials in various  departments of the Government as per the requisitions sent by the Government in this  regard from time to time. 
  • The Punjab Public Service Commission invites Online Application Forms from  eligible candidates for recruitment to 200 Posts of Agriculture Development  officer (Group-A) in the Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare,  Government of Punjab. 
  • Note: This advertisement is being published as per requisition received from the  Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Govt. of Punjab vide letter No.  1/15/22-Agriculture-1(2)/11944 dated 03/10/2022 and No. 1/15/2022-Agriculture 1(2)/14362 dated 02/12/2022

2. Number of the Posts : 200

3. Initial Pay for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022 : Rs. 44,900/- 

4. Essential Qualifications for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • Should possess a degree in B.Sc. (Agriculture) (with minimum sixty percent marks) from a  recognized University or Institution.  
  • Provided that preference shall be given to a person, who possesses a degree in M.Sc.  (Agriculture) from any recognized University or Institution  
  • Should have passed Punjabi of Matric or its equivalent Standard. 
  • IMPORTANT NOTE: The candidates MUST possess the requisite qualification before or  by 29/12/2022

5. Age Limit for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • Candidates should not bebelow 18 years and above 37 years of age as on 01/01/2022. 
  • The upper age limit may be relaxed up to 45 years for Punjab Government employees, the  employees of its Boards/Corporations/Commissions and Authorities, and all States/  Central Government employees. 
  • The upper age limit is relaxed up to 42 years for Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes  of Punjab. 
  • Ex-servicemen of Punjab Domicile shall be allowed to deduct the period of his service in  the Armed Forces of Union from his actual age and if the resultant age does not exceed the  maximum age limit prescribed for direct appointment to such a vacancy in the Service  Rules concerned by more than three years, he shall be deemed to satisfy the condition  regarding age limit.  
  • The upper age limit is also relaxed up to 42 years for widows, divorcees and certain other  categories of women. 
  • The upper age limit is also relaxed up to 47 years for "Persons with Disability" of Punjab.  
  • Note: Provisions mentioned in Punjab Civil Services (General and Common Conditions of  Service) Rules, 1994 amended from time to time may be considered 

6. Pattern and Scheme of Competitive Examination For Selection of Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

Procedure For Selection of Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • The procedure for selection of candidates for the post of Agriculture Development Officer  (Group-A) in the Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of Punjab will be as  per the following details 

Pattern of the Written Competitive Examination for Selection of Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • The pattern for written competitive examination comprising of 120 questions (@ 4 marks for each  question) is as follows:

The important points to note: 

  • 1. The Question Paper will be in English language only. 
  • 2. Each question carries 4 (four) marks and, for each correct answer candidate will get  4 (four) marks
  • 3. There will be Negative Marking (One Mark for each question) in the written  examination for questions wrongly answered i.e. for each incorrect answer, 1 (One) mark will be deducted from the total score. 
  • 4. To answer a question, the candidate has to find, for each question, the correct answer/best option. 
  • 5. Answer key will be uploaded on the PPSC website (after written examination), and the  candidates will be permitted to raise objections (if any). Candidates will be given four days to deliberate before putting up the objections. 
  • 6. Unanswered/Unattempted questions will be given no marks. In case, a question is  withdrawn, all candidates will be given four (04) marks irrespective of the fact whether the question has been attempted or not attempted by the candidate. 

Duration of Examination for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • The exam will be of two (02) hours duration. 

Syllabus of the Written Examination for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • The Question Paper will be based on the given syllabus and from General Knowledge &  Current Affairs, Logical Reasoning, Mental Ability & Quantitative Aptitude. (Annexure-VII). 

Mode of Examination for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • The examination is a pen and paper-based, to be answered on the specially designed  machine gradable OMR sheet using ball point pen

Information About Exam Centre for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • Information about the examination center(s) will be mentioned on Admit Cards of all  candidates. The Public Notice to download the Admit cards will be given on the website  of the Commission.

Interview for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • 1. Candidates not more than two times the total number of posts as mentioned at (in  their order of merit of written examination) who have scored a minimum of 40  percent marks in written examination (35% for candidates of Scheduled Castes of  Punjab and Backward Classes Punjab) will be short-listed for appearing in the  interview. However, this number shall be subject to variation if two or more  candidates at the bottom of this list (the number at the end) get equal marks. In such  case, then all of them will be considered for appearing in the Interview (subject to  eligibility), warranting the corresponding increase in the stipulated ratio. 
  • 2. No candidate shall be eligible to be shortlisted for interview unless he/she obtains  40% marks in the written competitive examination (read 35% for the candidates  belonging to Scheduled Castes of Punjab and Backward Classes of Punjab) and no  candidate shall be eligible to be appointed unless he/she obtains at least 40%  marks in the aggregate i.e., competitive examination including interview (read 35%  for the candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes of Punjab and Backward Classes  of Punjab). 
  • 3. The aim of the Interview is to assess the candidate's suitability for the job in terms of  his personal qualities by the Interview Panel.

Final Result for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • 1. Final result shall be prepared on the basis of the grand total of the marks obtained by  the candidates in the Written Competitive Examination and the Interview. The marks  of written competitive examination obtained by the candidates or cut off marks for  interview will not be disclosed at the time of short listing the candidates for interview,  to avoid the same influencing the interview panel. However, the complete details of  written marks and interview marks will be available on the website of Commission  after compiling the final result. 
  • 2. Category wisemerit list will be drawn on the basis of grand total of marks obtained  by the candidates in the Written Competitive Examination and the Interview. 
  • 3. Government of Punjab, Department of Personnel (Personal Policies-I Branch)  Notification No. GSR 40/Const./Art.309/Amd. (2)/2020 dated 20/07/2020 (Annexure  VII) prescribes the criteria required to be met by candidates for being considered  under the "Sportsperson" category. All candidates qualifying as "Sportsperson"  under this notification will be treated equally in the compilation of final merit list  under this category 

7. Nationality for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022 : 

  • A candidate shall be a: 
  • (i) Citizen of India
  • (ii) Citizen of Nepal
  • (iii) Subject of Bhutan
  • (iv) Tibetan refugee who came over to India before the Ist January 1962, with the intention of  permanently settling in India. 
  • (v) A person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka and East  African countries of Kenya, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania (formerly  Tanganyika and Zanzibar) Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with the intention  of permanently settling in India; 
  • Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) shall be a person in  whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of Punjab in the  Department of Home Affairs and Justice. 

8. Submission of Application Form for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • 1. The candidates can ONLY apply by filling Online Application Form, a link of which is  available on the website of the Commission No other mode of  application will be accepted. 
  • Last date for filling online Application forms 29/12/2022 by 11:59:00 pm
  • Schedule for filling Application Fee and Examination fee by  using online mode of payment 09/12/2022 to 30/12/2022 By 11:59:00 pm

9. Application And Examination Fee for Punjab ADO Recruitment 2022

  • Gen/ ESP/ FF : ₹ 1500/-
  • SC/ST/ BC : ₹ 750/-
  • PH/ESM : ₹ 500/-
  • Payment Mode : Online


Daily Current Affairs : Global Water Resources Report 2021 Released by WMO -for All Agriculture Exams IBPS ADO, RAEO, JRF, SRF & CUET Target Exam

About Global Water Resources Report 2021 Released by WMO 

  • WMO (World Meteorological Organization) has released its first annual State of Global Water Resources Report 2021.
  • Geneva, 29 November 2022 - The World Meteorological Organization has published its first State of Global Water Resources report in order to assess the effects of climate, environmental and societal change on the Earth’s water resources. 
  • The aim of this annual report GWR is to support monitoring and management of global freshwater resources in an era of growing demand and limited supplies.
  • Global Water Resources Report 2021 gives an overview of river flow, as well as major floods and droughts
  • GWR  Report 2021 to provides insights into hotspots for changes in freshwater storage and highlights the crucial role and vulnerability of the cryosphere (snow and ice).
  • Global Water Resources Report 2021 shows how large areas of the globe recorded drier than normal conditions in precipitation patterns were influenced by climate change and a La Niña event. 
  • The area with below-average streamflow was approximately 2 timeslarger than the above-average area, in comparison to the 30-year hydrological average.

Important Point for all competitive exams:

  1. Headquarters location of WHO : Geneva, Switzerland
  2. Founded of WHO : 23 March 1950
  3. President of WMO : Gerhard Adrian

Syllabus and Exam Pattern for TPSC AO (Tripura Agricultural Officer)


Tripura Public Service Commission 
Akhaura Road Agartala, Tripura Pin: 799001

Source link: Click here or TPSC Website

Syllabus And Scheme of Examination 
The Post of Agriculture Officer, TAFS Grade - I


It is hereby announced for the information of candidates who have applied for the posts of Agriculture Officer, TAFS Gr-1, Group-'B'  under the Department of Agriculture & Farmers' Welfare, Government of Tripura, Agartala. (Administrative Cadre) in response to Advertisement no. 18/2022, that there will be a recruitment test for the above said posts. The Commission has decided as under:

Post Vacancy status for Category of vacancy for Tripura A O Exam : Total vacancy = 60 

Scheme/Pattern of Recruitment Test for Tripura A O Exam:

  • i. Evaluation of candidates will be done in two (2) stages viz. MCQ Test followed by interview/ personality test. 

Marks distribution will be as follows: 

Name of the Subjects Number of Questions/ Maximum Marks for Tripura A O Exam

  • MCQ Part I: English & General Knowledge 30
  • MCQ Part II: Agriculture 150
  • Interview/ personality test 20
  • Total = 200

1.Question Paper for written exam will be of 180 Marks (180 MCQ). Questions will be of MCQ type carrying one (1) mark each. 

2.  Duration of Examination will be 180 minutes(3 hours)

3. There will be a negative marking of 0.25 Mark for every wrong answer. 

4. Minimum qualification marks in MCQ test should be as per standing norms of TPSC.

5. Accordingly, a merit list of qualified candidates may be prepared considering a 100 point roster as per the standing norms of Govt. of Tripura. 

6. Interview call letters may be issued with a ratio of 1:5 (No. of post: No. of successful candidates). 

7. Each question will have four (4) distracters. Some of the questions may have "None of these" as one of the distracters if felt necessary. 

8. Candidates must appear before the selection committee for an interview/ personality test. 

9. Final merit list will be prepared by adding both marks obtained in the written test followed by the interview


Proposed Syllabus for Tripura Agricultural Officer (A.O.) (Agriculture)

(Administrative Cadre)

Part I: English & General Knowledge

MCQ Part I: English & General Knowledge including current affairs  (30 Questions = 30 Marks)

1. English:- 15 Questions = 15 Marks

  • Synonyms & Antonyms 
  • Use of common Phrase & Idioms 
  • Use of appropriate prepositions and articles Comprehension 
  • Ordering of words in a sentence 
  • Ordering of sentences 
  • Spotting of errors 
  • Use of appropriate and qualifying words etc. 
  • Parts of speech 
  • Gender, person & number 
  • Tense-past, present, future 
  • Voice change. 

2. General knowledge including current affairs:- 15 Questions= 15 Marks

  • Geography of India: - Physical, Social & Economic, 
  • Geography of Tripura: - Natural resources with special reference to its soil, forest, water and power. 
  • History of Tripura:- During 1857 to 1949. 
  • Culture of Tripura:- Different Tribes, Languages, Customs, Festivals, Important Historical sites etc. 
  • Indian Polity and Economy: - Country's Political system and Constitution of 
  • India, Panchayati Raj, Community development, Economic development during Plan periods. 
  • Science & Technology 
  • Current affairs of national and international importance 


MCO Part II: Agriculture(150 Questions=150 Marks) 

1. Agriculture in India and Tripura: 10 Questions =10 Marks 

  • i. Agriculture in India, its importance in the national economy. 
  • ii. History of Indian Agriculture. 
  • iii. National agricultural setup in India 
  • iv. Area production and productivity of major crops of Tripura and India. 
  • v. Government Agricultural Policies 
  • vi. Agricultural Education, Research and Extension institutes of National Importance. 
  • vii. Agro- Climatic & Agro-ecological zones of India. 

2. Natural Resource Management: 

  • i. Soil formation, composition, physical properties. 
  • ii. Soil fertility and productivity 
  • iii. Problem soils and their management 
  • iv. Essential plant nutrients. 
  • v. Manures & fertilizers 
  • vi. Integrated nutrient management (INM) 
  • vii. Scheduling of irrigation, methods of irrigation viii. Water use efficiency 
  • ix. Quality of irrigation water 
  • x. Water stress & management 
  • xi. Conservation of soil and water 
  • xii. Watershed and wasteland development 
  • xiii. Cropping systems 
  • xiv. Integrated farming system (IFS) 
  • xv. Dryland agriculture 
  • xvi. Sustainable agriculture 
  • xvii. Recycling of agricultural waste 
  • xviii. Biodiversity and its conservation 
  • xix. Application of Remote Sensing & GIS in Agriculture. 

3. Fundamentals of Crop Production: 20 Questions=20 Marks

  • i. Factors of crop Production 
  • ii. Agricultural seasons of India and Tripura 
  • iii. Recommended Package of practices of different crops with major emphasis in Tripura. 
  • iv. System of Rice Intensification (SRI). 
  • v. Jhum Cultivation in Tripura 
  • vi. Organic Agriculture 
  • vii. Weather, climate, atmosphere. Elements of weather, climatic normals for major crops, weather aberration, weather forecasting, global warming and climate change 
  • viii. Tilth & tillage 
  • ix. Crop establishment 
  • x. Nano-particles and their applications 
  • xi. Precision Agriculture.  
  • xii. Statistical Methods 
  • xiii. Major Weeds of Tripura & Integrated Weed Management (IWM). Commonly used herbicides in India and Tripura. 
  • xiv. Farm mechanization and its role in agricultural production and rural employment. xv. Basic knowledge of farm implements. 

4. Horticulture: 30 Questions = 30 Marks

  • i. Definition and branches, importance in human nutrition and national economy and scope 
  • ii. Plant propagation-methods and propagating structures 
  • iii. Principles and methods of training and pruning, 
  • iv. Juvenility and flower bud differentiation, unfruitfulness, pollination, pollinizers and pollinators, fertilization and parthenocarpy. 
  • v. Importance/role of plant bio-regulators in horticulture. 
  • vi. Irrigation and fertilizer application methods in horticultural crops.
  • vii. Rootstocks - importance and role
  • viii. Orchard layout and planting systems, high density planting and meadow orchard. 
  • ix. Production technologies of major fruits - mango, banana, citrus, pineapple guava, litchi, papaya, sapota, grape, apple, pear and minor fruits like ber, jackfruit, strawberry, pomegranate. 
  • x. Kitchen gardening, origin, production technology ofmajor vegetable crops like Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli, Capsicum, Cucumber, Melons, Gourds, Pumpkin, French bean, Peas; Cole crops such as Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knol-khol; Bulb crops such as Onion, Garlic; Root crops such as Carrot, Raddish, Beetroot; Tuber crops such as Potato, True Potato Seed (TPS) cassava; Leafy vegetables such as Amaranth, Palak, perennial vegetables. 
  • xi. Production technology of important flowers like rose, gerbera, carnation, lilium and orchids under protected conditions and gladiolus, tuberose, chrysanthemum under open conditions. Package of practices for loose flowers like marigold and jasmine under open conditions. 
  • xii. Production technology of important medicinal plants like ashwagandha, asparagus, aloe, costus, Cinnamomum, periwinkle, isabgol and aromatic plants like mint, lemongrass, citronella, palmarosa, ocimum, rose, geranium, vetiver. xiii. Principles of landscaping, landscape uses of trees, shrubs and climbers. 
  • xiv. Physiological disorders of national importance in important horticultural crops. 
  • xv. Pre-harvest factors affecting postharvest quality, maturity, ripening and changes occurring during ripening, respiration and factors affecting respiration rate. 
  • xvi. Storage (ZECC, cold storage, CA, MA, and hypobaric) 
  • xvii. Value addition of horticultural crops, principles and methods of packaging, tetrazine films. 
  • xviii. Principles and methods of preservation, Drying/ Dehydration of fruits, osmotic drying, fermentation. 
  • xix. Application of nanotechnology in post harvest horticulture. 
  • xx. Canning - Concepts and Standards, packaging of products.
  • xxi. Protected cultivation - Importance and scope, status of protected cultivation in India and World. 
  • xxii. Types of protected structure, cladding material involved in greenhouse/ poly house, greenhouse design, environment control, artificial lights, Automation, Soil preparation, substrate management, Irrigation and fertigation management. 
  • xxiii. Greenhouse cultivation of important horticultural crops rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, gerbera, orchid, anthurium, lilium, tomato, bell pepper, cucumber, strawberry, pot plants, etc. 
  • xxiv. Off-season production of flowers and vegetables. 
  • xxv. Production Technology of Mushrooms. 

5. Crop Improvement: 20 Questions=20 Marks 

i. Genetics 

  • Pre and Post Mendelian concepts of heredity, Mendelian principles of heredity. Architecture and Types of chromosomes. Chromosomal theory of inheritance- cell cycle and cell division- mitosis and meiosis. Probability and Chi- square. Dominance relationships, Epistatic interactions with example. 
  • Multiple alleles, pleiotropism and pseudoalleles, Sex determination and sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced traits, Blood group genetics, Linkage and its estimation, crossing over mechanisms, chromosome mapping. Structural and numerical variations in chromosome and their implications, Use of haploids, haploids and doubled haploids in Genetics. Mutation, classification, Methods of inducing mutations & CIB technique, mutagenic agents and induction of mutation. Qualitative & Quantitative traits, Polygenes and continuous variations, multiple factor hypothesis, Cytoplasmic inheritance. Genetic disorders. Nature, structure & replication of genetic material. Protein synthesis, Transcription and translational mechanism of genetic material, Gene concept: Gene structure, function and regulation, Lac and Trp operons. 

ii. Crop Physiology

  • Diffusion and osmosis, Absorption of water, transpiration and Stomatal Physiology; Mineral nutrition of Plants: Functions and deficiency symptoms of nutrients, nutrient uptake mechanisms; Photosynthesis: Light and Dark reactions, C3, C4 and CAM plants; Respiration: Glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain; Fat Metabolism: Fatty acid synthesis and Breakdown; Plant growth regulators. 

iii. Plant Breeding

  • Concept, nature and role of plant breeding, major achievements and future prospects; Genetics in relation to plant breeding, modes of reproduction and apomixes, self-incompatibility and male sterility- genetic consequences, cultivar options. Domestication, Acclimatization and Introduction; Centres of origin, components of Genetic variation; Heritability and genetic advance; Genetic basis and breeding methods in self-pollinated crops mass and pure line selection, hybridization techniques and handling of segregating population; Multiline concept. Concepts of population genetics and Hardy-Weinberg Law, Genetic basis and methods of breeding cross pollinated crops, improvement Schemes- Ear to row method, Modified Ear to Row, recurrent modes of selection; Population selection schemes; Heterosis and inbreeding depression, development of inbred lines and hybrids, composite and synthetic varieties; asexually propagated crops, clonal selection and hybridization; Maintenance of Breeding methods in breeding records and data collection; Wide hybridization and pre-breeding; Polyploidy in relation to plant breeding, mutation breeding-methods and uses; Breeding for important biotic and abiotic stresses; Biotechnological tools-DNA markers and marker assisted selection. Participatory plant breeding; Intellectual Property Rights, Patenting, Plant Breeders and Farmers Rights. 
  • Centers of origin, distribution of species, wild relatives in different cereals; pulses; oilseeds; fibers; fodders and cash crops; vegetable and horticultural crops; Plant genetic resources, its utilization and conservation, study of genetics of qualitative and quantitative characters; Important concepts of breeding self pollinated, cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops; Major breeding objectives and procedures including conventional and modern innovative approaches for development of hybrids and varieties for yield, adaptability, stability, abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and quality (physical, chemical, nutritional); Hybrid seed production technology in Maize, Rice, Sorghum, Pearl millet and Pigeonpea, etc. Ideotype concept and climate resilient crop varieties for future. 

iv. Seed and seed technology: 

  • Introduction, definition and importance. Deterioration causes of crop varieties and their control; Maintenance of genetic purity during seed production, seed quality; Definition, Characters of good quality seed, different classes of seed. Foundation and certified seed production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fodder and vegetables. Seed certification. Seed Act, 1966 and Seed Act enforcement. Duty and powers of seed inspector, offenses and penalties. Seeds Control Order 1983, Varietal Identification through Grow Out Test and Electrophoresis, Molecular and Biochemical test. Detection of genetically modified crops, Transgene contamination in non-GM crops, GM crops and organic seed production. 
  • Seed drying, processing and their steps, seed testing for quality assessment, seed treatment, its importance, method of application and seed packing. Seed storage; general principles, stages and factors affecting seed longevity during storage. Measures for pest and disease control during storage. Seed marketing: structure and organization, sales generation activities, promotional media. Factors affecting seed marketing, Role of WTO and OECD in seed marketing. 

6. Crop Protection: 30 Questions= 30 Marks 

i. Plant Pathology

  • Importance of plant diseases, scope and objectives of Plant Pathology. Terms and concepts in Plant Pathology. Pathogenesis. Factors affecting disease development, disease triangle and tetrahedron, classification of plant diseases. Important plant pathogenic organisms like fungi, bacteria, fastidious vascular bacteria, phytoplasmas, Spiroplasma, viruses, viroids, algae, protozoa, phanerogamic parasites and nematodes with examples of diseases caused by them. Disorders due to abiotic causes. Growth and reproduction of plant pathogens. Liberation / dispersal and survival of plant pathogens. Types of parasitism and variability in plant pathogens. Pathogenesis. Role of enzymes, toxins and growth regulators in disease development. Defense mechanism in plants. Epidemiology: Factors affecting disease development. Principles and methods of plant disease management, Integrated Disease Management(IDM). Nature, chemical combination, classification, mode of action and formulations of fungicides & antibiotics. Diseases of Field Crops, Horticultural Crops & their Integrated Disease Management (with major emphasis on diseases prevalent under Agro-climatic condition of Tripura). 

ii. Agricultural Entomology: 

  • Major points related to dominance of Insects in Animal kingdom. Classification of phylum Arthropoda upto classes. Relationship of class Insecta with other classes of Arthropoda. Morphology and Functions of Various Parts of Insect Body. Metamorphosis and diapause in insects. Types of larvae and pupae. Structure and functions of digestive, circulatory, excretory, respiratory, nervous, secretary (Endocrine) and reproductive system, in insects. Types of reproduction in insects. Major sensory organs like simple and compound eyes, chemoreceptor. 
  • Insect Ecology: Introduction, Environment and its components. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Insects. 
  • Classification of class Insecta up to Orders, basic groups of present-day insects with special emphasis to orders and families of Agricultural importance. Categories of pests. Concept and Components of IPM, practices, scope and limitations of IPM, Survey surveillance and forecasting of insect pests and diseases, Economic Injury Level (EIL), Economic Threshold Level! (ETL). Classification, toxicity and formulation of insecticides. Agrochemicals & Bio-pesticides under Crop Protection. Recent methods of pest control, repellents, antifeedants, hormones, attractants, gamma radiation. Insecticides Act 1968. Application techniques of spray fluids. Symptoms of poisoning, first aid and antidotes. 
  • Important Pests of different Field Crops, Horticultural Crops, Stored Grains and their Management (with major emphasis on pests prevalent under Agro Climatic condition of Tripura). 

7. Social Science: 20 Questions=20 Marks

(i) Principles of farm business management:

  • 1. Types and systems of farms 
  • 2. Classical production functions 
  • 3. Management of resources 
  • 4. Farm Planning and budgeting 
  • 5. Investment analysis 
  • 6. Risk and uncertainties in agriculture 
  • 7. Cost concepts 
  • 8. Multi credit delivery system 

(ii) Agricultural Extension: Principles and Methods: 

  • Rural Sociology 
  • Extension methods for transfer of technology 
  • Communication models 
  • Diffusion and adoption 
  • Role of women in agriculture 
  • ICT in agriculture 
  • Capacity building of extension personnel, SHG and farmers 
  • Role of KVK 

(iii) Agricultural Marketing & Market Intelligence: 

  • Market structure 
  • Agricultural Cooperatives 
  • Agricultural Loan 
  • Marketing efficiency  
  • FRP-Procurement Price 
  • Problem and prospects of Agricultural marketing 
  • Importance of Agriculture in the Indian economy 
  • Farm Business and Finance Management 
  • Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs (seeds, fertilizer and PPC) and output (production). 


TPSC AO Recruitment 2022, Syllabus and Exam Pattern of TPSC Agricultural Officer (A O) Exam (Administrative Cadre) 2022-23

Tripura Public Service Commission 
Akhaura Road Agartala, Tripura Pin: 799001

Source link: Click here or TPSC Website

Syllabus And Scheme of Examination 
The Post of Agriculture Officer, TAFS Grade - I


It is hereby announced for the information of candidates who have applied for the posts of Agricultural Officer (A.O.) (Administrative Cadre) (Group-B) in Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Department, Tripura in response to Advertisement no. 18/2022, that there will be a recruitment test for the above said posts. The Commission has decided as under:

Post Vacancy status for Agriculture Officer, TAFS Gr-1, Group-'B'  under the Department of Agriculture & Farmers' Welfare, Government of Tripura, Agartala.

Category of vacancy for Tripura A O Exam : 

1. SC = 08 

2. ST = 12 

3. UR = 40 

Total vacancy = 60 

Scheme/Pattern of Recruitment Test for Tripura A O Exam:

  • i. Evaluation of candidates will be done in two (2) stages viz. MCQ Test followed by interview/ personality test. 

Marks distribution will be as follows: 

Name of the Subjects Number of Questions/ Maximum Marks for Tripura A O Exam

  • MCQ Part I: English & General Knowledge 30
    • including current affairs
  • MCQ Part II: Agriculture 150
  • Interview/ personality test 20
  • Total 200

1.Question Paper for written exam will be of 180 Marks (180 MCQ). Questions will be of MCQ type carrying one (1) mark each. 

2.  Duration of Examination will be 180 minutes (3 hours)

3. There will be a negative marking of 0.25 Mark for every wrong answer. 

4. Minimum qualification marks in MCQ test should be as per standing norms of TPSC.

5. Accordingly, a merit list of qualified candidates may be prepared considering a 100 point roster as per the standing norms of Govt. of Tripura. 

6. Interview call letters may be issued with a ratio of 1:5 (No. of post: No. of successful candidates). 

7. Each question will have four (4) distracters. Some of the questions may have "None of these" as one of the distracters if felt necessary. 

8. Candidates must appear before the selection committee for an interview/ personality test. 

9. Final merit list will be prepared by adding both marks obtained in the written test followed by the interview


Model bankable project on Subabul (Leucaena Leucocephala) based agroforestry

Model bankable project on Subabul (Leucaena Leucocephala) based agroforestry 

Source: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development 

Useful for : IBPS AFO Mains Exam (Agriculture Knowledge), NABARD Asst. Manager Exam


Model bankable project on Subabul (Leucaena Leucocephala) based agroforestry

1. Introduction 

  • Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) is an excellent source of fuel, fodder and nitrogen fixing trees.★★★

  • The forage is highly palatable, digestible and protein rich.

  • Since, subabul helps to enrich the atmospheric nitrogen in soil, it can be grown on soils with average fertility.

  • The wood is widely used in the fuel, charcoal, pole and also pulpwood industries.★★★

  • It is commonly known as leucaena, ipil-ipil and subabul.★★★

  • It is one of the fast growing hardy evergreen species.★★

  • It will respond well to pollarding, lopping and pruning.

  • It has deep and strong taproot and even the seedlings are deep rooted.

Types of subabul: 

  • There are four types of subabul viz, 

1) Hawaiian type

  • The plants are short, bushy and remarkably drought tolerant.★★★

  • It is suited to hilly terrains in drought prone areas.

  • It is a prolific seed producer and is good for fodder purpose.

2) Salvador type: 

  • Tall, tree-like and fast growing having maximum annual biomass production.

  • Possesses large leaves, pods and seeds than Hawaiian types.

  • Responds to high fertilisation.

3) Peru: 

  • Tall and extensively branching type and is ideal for fodder purposes.★★★

  • Cunningham: It is a cross between Salvador and Peru types.


2. Botanical features 

  • The leaves are bipinnate, 15 to 20 cm long with 10 to 15 pairs of pinnate leaves.

  • Inflorescence is globular and the flowers are white.


3. Ecology 

  • Subabul is best suited for warm regions and grows well between 22 and 30ºC in regions of 500 to 2000 mm annual rainfall.

  • Because of its strong and deep root system, tree is highly drought resistant.

  • It is restricted to elevations below 500m but withstands variations in rainfall, sunlight, windstorm, slight frost and drought.

4. Soil 

  • Subabul requires deep well drained neutral soil and also can tolerate saline & acid soil.

  • The tree grows very well under alkaline soils and also performs under dry clayey soils.

  • The growth is average under sandy, acidic & dry gravel soils.

  • The performance is poor under marshy and high altitudes.

  • It can also be grown in steep slopes, hilly terrains, gravelly areas and sandy loams.

  • Cultivation practices for subabul 


5. Pretreatment and sowing 

  • Planting of seedlings can be done with the onset of rains in May-June or Sept-October.

  • Since the seed viability is high, it possesses physical dormancy.

  • It can be hastened by concentrated sulphuric acid scarification for five minutes followed by 24 hour soaking in cold water or hot water (80ºC) for five minutes and followed by the cold water soaking for 24 hours.

  • Then seeds should be sundried afterwards for about one hour before sowing.

  • A seed rate of 3-4 kg/ha is recommended.

  • Sowing is preferably done during February-March in a nursery or in polythene bags or in situ at 2-3 cm depth.

  • Seedlings (1.5 to 3 months old with 6-8 leaves) are planted in the main field.

  • A spacing of 1 x 0.1 m is recommended for a pure crop of fodder, 1.5 x 0.2 m for planting in boundaries and borders of coconut gardens and 2 x 0.2 m when raised along boundaries.


6. Planting Material 

  • Methods of propagation for raising plantations are (i) Direct sowing of seeds; (ii) Bag Plantation; (iii) Naked seedlings collected from existing plantation regeneration.


7. Spacing 

  • The most common spacing adopted are 1.27 m x 1.27m (50” x 50”) (i.e.6200 plants/ha); 2m x 2m (2500 plants/ha); 3 x 1.5m (2222 plants/ha).

  • However, the recommended spacing is 1.5m x 1.5m (4445 plants/ha).

  • Inter cultivation may not be possible from second year onwards.


8. Irrigation 

  • Frequent irrigation is required for fodder based plantations.

  • For pole/timber plantation, irrigation is required for the first three years only.


9. Weeding / Soil working 

  • Two weeding / soil workings are required per year for the first 3 years of sowing / planting.


10. Pests and diseases 

  • Subabul generally has been free of serious insect and diseases, but is susceptible to jumping plant lice (psyllids) which have caused serious defoliation and mortality in some areas.

  • Some varieties are susceptible to gummosis, which is most likely caused by Fusarium or Phytophthora species.

  • Leaf spot fungus also can cause defoliation under wet conditions.


11. Yield & Rotation 

  • Harvesting is done at the end of third year.

  • The average yield is 70 ton/ha. ★★★

  • Farmers adopt a rotation of four years.

  • Normally subabul can harvest three coppice crops.

  • During the second rotation, only two coppice shoots are retained in each stem.

  • The sale price for pulpwood is considered at Rs.2400/ton.

  • The stumps removed from plantations after three rotations may fetch a rate of Rs.350/- to Rs.400/-ton for usage as fuel wood.


12. Markets and Marketing Arrangements 

  • There is enormous demand for Subabul wood for pulp (raw material) from many paper industries.


13. Unit Cost 

  • The cost of cultivation of Subabul in one hectare at an espacement of 1.27mx1.27m i.e.6200 plants per ha has been worked out at Rs.69000/- per ha.

  • The details of various items of expenditure are viz., land preparation, digging of pits, plant and material, manure and fertilizer, plant protection, etc.


14. Financial analysis 

  • The techno economic parameters for working out the economics are given in Annexure II.

  •  Financial analysis with the above parameters of the investment cost and yields, the BCR and IRR works out to 1.37:1 and 29.20% respectively.

  • The detailed repayment schedule has been worked out and is shown in Annexure III.


15. Lending Terms 

  • Margin Money 

  • The beneficiaries may contribute towards down payment ranging from 10% depending upon their category, i.e., small and other farmers.

  • Beneficiary’s own labour can also be taken as his contribution towards the margin money requirement.

  • In the current model scheme margin money of 10 % has been considered.

  • With 10% margin money, banks will provide lending of Rs.62,000/-.

16. Repayment period/Interest rates: 

  • The bank loan is considered at 90% of the unit cost i.e. Rs.62,000 /- .

  • Income generation from the activity commences from fifth year onwards.

  • The interest accrued during the gestation period will be deferred.

  • The rate of interest to the ultimate borrowers will be decided by the financing banks which is subject to revision by RBI / NABARD from time to time.

  • The repayment of principal with deferred interest will start from 4th year of plantation and will be paid upto 6th year maximum.


17. Commercial Uses: 

  • Subabul wood can be used for light construction, poles, props, pulp, furniture, flooring and fuel wood.

  • Subabul wood is an excellent fuel wood with a specific gravity of 0.45-0.55 and a high heating value of 4000 kcal/kg.

  • Subabul forage has a high protein and carotene content and pellets or cubes are internationally marketed as animal feed.


Annexure I Unit Cost for Clonal based Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala

  • Techno-economic parameters 

  • Species recommended subabul 

  • Year of harvesting (year) 5 

  • Spacing (m x m) 1. 27m x 1.27m 

  • Economic Life 15 years 

  • No. of plants per ha. 6200 

  • Avg. wage rate per MD (Rs.) 200 

  • Mortality replacement 10% 

  • Interest on term loan 12% 

  • No. of harvestable plants per ha 100% 

  • Margin (of the total cost) for Bank Loan 10%


Yield & income of Subabul plantation in one hectare 

  • Harvesting may be done 3rd year onwards


1. Protective / pot irrigation is provided during the initial years.

2. Seedlings: It is assumed that seedlings will be purchased from government forestry nursery or from private nursery 

3. Labour Charges: Assumed average wage rate@ Rs.200 prevailing in the state.

4. Cost of cultivation provided for 1+2 years for all the crops (1 year for establishment +2 maintenance) 

5. Though the gestation period is 8-10 years, loan instalments provided for 3 years, the remaining years of gestation period bank may charge interest on the outstanding loan amount and the years in term may be kept separate and not to be compounded. Both the principal and interest can be recovered after the harvest.



Model bankable project on Poplar based agroforestry (Useful for IBPS AFO & NABARD Exam)

Model bankable project on Poplar based agroforestry 

Source: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development 

Useful for : IBPS AFO Mains Exam (Agriculture Knowledge), NABARD Asst. Manager Exam

Model bankable project on Poplar based agroforestry

 1. Introduction : 

  • Poplar (Populus deltoids) is one of the fast growing multipurpose tree species which can be grown as a mono crop as well as in association with agricultural crops.★★★

  • In addition to fast growing nature, its other qualities such as winter deciduous nature, straight bole, narrow crown, compatibility with agricultural crops, etc. has made this tree one of the best options for agroforestry.★★★

  • Its wood being light, homogenous and odourless is suitable for match splints, plywood, ply board, packing cases, sports goods, artificial limbs, furniture, pulp for paper, wood, light constructional timber, pencils and furniture, etc.★★★

  • It has emerged as an important industrial wood in North India and is being widely cultivated and a good market has developed in this region.

  • Poplar being a deciduous species adds a tremendous amount of leaf litter to the soil and is considered to be one of the best species for agroforestry.

  • The species has performed well in India especially above latitude 28o North.

2. Climate and Site requirement/ Site Selection : 

  • Poplar grows well in the subtropical climate where the temperature extremes are not too severe.

  • It requires loam to sandy loam deep fertile, well drained soils with assured irrigation and springs must be free from late frost.

  • It does not perform well on saline, alkaline (pH> 8.0), dry sandy soils, water logged areas and hard clays.


3. Clones: 

  • Various fast growing Poplar clones have been developed by Agriculture Universities and private wood based organizations A lot of good quality clones have been developed and launched commercially.

  • Some of them are G-3, G-48, D-121, D-67, S7C15, S7C8, L-34, Uday, Kranti, PL-1 to PL-7, L49 etc.

  • Before purchasing planting stock and planting out in the field, the farmers should collect information on the clones and its quality.


4. Planting Material / Nursery Raising: 

i) Site Preparation: 

  • A light preparatory irrigation should be given so that the soil has proper moisture at the time of ploughing.

  • The field should be levelled after ploughing.

  • One deep ploughing upto 25-30 cm depth is desirable.

  • This should be followed by deep harrowing once in either direction and then planking with heavy roller or 'Sohaga'.

  • Phosphatic and Potassium fertilizers should be added at this point.

  • After addition of fertilizers, one more harrowing should be arranged.

ii) Alignment : 

  • Each block of nursery should be divided in standard size beds, which should be 5-6 m in width and 15 m in length perpendicular to the irrigation channels, so that one channel irrigates a row of beds on either side of the channel.

  • As far as possible, the main irrigation channel should run in North-South direction and side irrigation channels which irrigate individual beds should be in East-West direction.

  • One meter wide inspection path should be retained in between two adjoining rows of beds.

iii) Preparation and treatment of cuttings: 

  • Cuttings made from one year old wood of the main stem of young healthy and vigorous plants give better results.★★★

  • Cuttings obtained from the middle of the main shoot with diameter between 1-3 cms perform better.

  • Plants must be given a clean cut and splitting must be avoided.

  • The cutting should be prepared much in advance as the rate of sprouting is adversely affected.

  • Each cutting should be at least 1 cm thick and it is not desirable to have more than 2.5 cms thick set of cuttings.

  • The length of the cuttings should be about 20 cms and upper cut of the cutting should be slightly above the bud as far as possible.

  • After preparation of the cuttings, these should be covered with wet gunny bags to avoid desiccation.

  • Before planting, the cuttings should be soaked in fresh water (not stagnant) for 24 hours.

  • The cuttings should be given treatment against termites (0.5% emulsion Aldrex i.e. 250 ml Aldrex 30 E.C. should be thoroughly mixed in 50 litres of water and cuttings should be soaked in emulsion for 10 minutes).

  • Thereafter the cuttings should be treated with Emissan-6 (250 grams of this powder should be dissolved in a small quantity of water and then diluted with 50 liters of water.

  • Cutting treated with Aldrex should be transferred to drums containing Emissan solution and kept submerged for 10 minutes.

  • The cuttings stored in fresh water should be taken out only at the time of planting and not earlier.

iv) Planting of cuttings : 

  • The best time of planting is middle of February.

  • The distance to be kept is 80 cm row to row and 60 cm plant to plant.

  • Before planting, hole should be made with the planting rod whose lower end is flattened and sharpened like a screwdriver.

  • The cutting should be planted in the hole with thinner end up in such a way that the upper portion is just 2 mm above the ground level.

  • After planting, the soil around the cutting must be compacted gently but firmly.

v) Irrigation : 

  • Efforts must be made to arrange for irrigation at the earliest after planting i.e. the gap between completion of planting and irrigation must be minimum.

  • In no case the irrigation should be postponed to the next day of planting.

  • The irrigation should be medium.

  • Subsequent irrigation should be light and the interval may vary from 7-10 days depending upon the type of soil.

  • The light sandy soil needs frequent irrigation and in clayey soils irrigation is needed at longer interval but the top soil should not be allowed to develop cracks.

  • Next Irrigation should be applied before such a stage develops till completion of sprouting.

  • Thereafter irrigation can be applied at 8-10 days interval.

vi) Fertilizer application : 

  • As the poplar plants grow very fast, the nursery soil has to be enriched frequently.

  • Urea, Super phosphate, Muriate of Potash and plentiful supply of Farm Yard Manure are essential for maintaining the growth of cuttings.

  • The quantity of fertilizer will depend upon the type of soil.

  • Nursery beds are depleted of fertility after producing plants for one year, if no fertilizer is applied.

  • After the rains have set in, 2g of urea per plant is given ; regular debudding and hoeing will depend upon the incidence of weeds and grasses.

  • Singling of collar shoots should be done during April-May when the most vigorous shoot has attained a height 30-35 cm.

  • Debudding is done by gently rubbing with gunny bags the newly formed buds upto 2/3 rd height of plant from the base from June to October.

  • Sufficient care should be taken to ensure that the young leaves are not damaged.

5. Field Planting: 

  • Each poplar plant needs approximately 20-25 m2 space for its optimum growth.

  • One year old Entire Trans Plants (ETPs) without any co-leader or branches and with naked root (without any ball of earth) are planted in the field from mid-January to February end in pits of size 45cm X 45cm X 45cm.

  • The spacing to be adopted for block plantation is generally 5m X 4m apart or more recently the spacing being followed at field level is 8m X 2.5m for facilitating intercropping (500 plants per hectare ) and for single line or field boundary plantation plant to plant distance is kept as 3m.

  • The plants may be soaked for about 48 hours in running fresh water before planting.

  • To avoid fungal infection, lower one meter of the poplar transplant should be dipped in 0.15 percent solution of Emissan-6 for about 20 minutes and for termite protection for 10 minutes in 0.25 percent Aldrix solution or alternatively for protection against termites about 400g of deoiled neem cake can be mixed with soil to be refilled in pits.

  • Planting should preferably be done by two men so the one man holds the plant in erect position and the other fills the pit and compacts the earth around it.

  • After planting, the pits should be filled with top soil and FYM in a ratio of 1 : 1 mixed with 10-20g BHC and 50g P2O5.

  • Proper compacting of the soil and immediate irrigation after plantation enhances the chances of survival of the plants.

  • First year causalities should be beaten up with sturdy ETPs not less than 5 m tall in January February of the following year.

  • After that no beating up should be done as the new plants are not able to catch up with rest of the plants.

6. Irrigation: 

  • Regular and timely irrigation is a must for proper growth of poplars.

  • While frequency of irrigation depends upon various factors like amount of rainfall, type of soil, age of trees and climatic conditions some general guidelines can be followed.

  • During the first year of plantation irrigation must be done at weekly intervals except when there are reasonably good rains.

  • This should be done from the time of transplanting till the monsoons begin.

  • From July to September, irrigation must be provided as needed, depending upon the rainfall and intervening dry spells.

  • From October to February when growth activity slows down, two irrigation's per month will be sufficient.

  • During the second year, irrigation may be given at 15 days interval in January-February and at 7-10 days interval from March to onset of monsoons after which the plantation may be irrigated on the lines of first year.

  • From third to eight years a minimum of two irrigation per month during summer and one during winter season are a must.


7. Fertilizer Application : 

  • A well decomposed FYM should be applied while preparing the field for inter-cultivation of Rabi and Kharif crops.

  • The general principles to be followed at the time of application of fertilizer are as under : 

  • A basal dose of 2 Kg good FYM, 50 gm super phosphate and 5 gm urea per plant should be mixed.

  • Nitrogenous fertilizers be applied in split doses.

  • First dose of nitrogen (75 gm urea) should be applied during the first week of June, second dose (150 gm urea) during first week of July and third dose (250 gm urea) during second and third week of August.

  • Fertilizer should never be placed near the stem of the plants as these can result in girdling of young trees and can even kill them.

  • Application of fertilizer must be followed by light irrigation.

  • Deficiency of micro-nutrients such as Zinc, Iron, Copper, Boron and Molybdenum and secondary nutrients like Calcium and Magnesium among others as per soil fertility status is of common occurrence.

  • Micro nutrients are also called trace elements as these are needed in very small quantities.

  • Symptoms of micro-nutrient deficiency include intravenal yellowing of leaves, small and shrivelled leaves and poor tree growth.

8. Leader Training and Pruning : 

  • Lower one third portion of the stem is required to be kept clean by removal of emerging buds for good growth of leading shoot and removal of obstruction to agricultural crops. ★★★

  • Co-leaders are to be removed for better clean and straight leader.

  • Pruning should always be done when the tree is leafless i.e.

  • in winters and Bordeaux paste is to be applied at the cut ends.

  • Excessive pruning is harmful as it encourages epicormic shoots.

  • The following schedule of pruning can be followed : First Year- No pruning only debudding, Second and Third Year- Lower 1/3 rd is cleared of branches, Fourth and Fifth Year- Upto ½ is cleared, After Five Years- Upto 2/3 of tree height is cleared 

9. Plant Protection Measures: 

  • Certain insects and pathogens are known to damage the poplars.

  • Among the important ones are the following: 

  • Leaf defoliator : These are active during the rainy season particularly Pygaera species.

  • The caterpillar of these moths feed on leaves.

  • The insect can be controlled by collecting and destroying the infested leaves.

  • Spray of Monocrotophos 36 SL @ 600 ml (Monocil / Monolik / Nuvacron / Corophos / Luphos) per acre.

  • (1) Termites : 

  • The risk of termite damage is likely where irrigation and inter cultivation operations are inadequate.

  • The soil should be treated with Aldrin (0.15%) and frequent irrigation arranged.

  • (2) Stem and shoot borer : 

  • These can be controlled by pushing a small wick of cotton dipped in any liquid fumigant in the holes through which frass is being pushed out by the borer.

  • All holes must be closed with mud paste after such treatment.

  • (3) Leaf Webber : 

  • The young larvae scrap the leaf surface along with veins and feed on epidermis of leaves by webbing 2 and 3 leaves with silken threads.

  • The pest is active from April to November with peak period from July to October.

  • For controlling the same measures as indicated under leaf defoliators can be adopted.

  • (4) Bark Eating Caterpillar : 

  • Nocturnal feeding larvae make L-shaped holes and wet silken threads entangled with fecal pallets.

  • Pest is active throughout the year.

  • Prune severely infested branches and spray suspension of 100 g Carbaryl 50 WP ( Sevin / Hexavin ) in 10 litres of water during September to October at feeding sites.

  • (5) Case Worm : 

  • The pest is active throughout the year.

  • The caterpillars feed on bark from December to March, on leaf buds during March and April and on leaves from April to November.

  • For controlling this a spray of Carbaryl 50 WP ( Sevin / Hexavin ) @ 1 Kg per acre is recommended.

  • (6) Leaf Hopper : 

  • The leaf hoppers are active from April to November with peak period of their activity from July to October.

  • A spray of Oxydemeton-methyl 25 EC (Metasystox) @ 300 ml or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 250 ml per acre is recommended.

  • (7) Rot of cuttings : 

  • Black dots appear on the cuttings at ground level and decay of bark takes place.

  • Dip the cuttings fro 15 minutes in 0.5 percent solution of Emisan-6 before planting.

  • (8) Leaf Spots : 

  • Brown to dark brown leaf spots of variable sizes appear on leaves.

  • Severe infections lead to premature defoliation.

  • Spray the crop with 0.25 percent Copper Chloride (Biltox 50) or Indofil M-45 at 15-20 days intervals starting with first rain.

  • Two to three sprays may be given.

  • (9) Pink Disease : 

  • Girdling of branches in young plants leads to death of parts.

  • The height of the tree is stopped due to the repeated death of the leaders.

  • Pink to Salmon colored mycelial growth appears on branches.

  • Use resistant varieties or two to three prophylactic spray of Bordeaux mixture during two to four years of age at the beginning of the summer monsoon.

  • (10) Sunscald canker : 

  • Bark is killed due to insolation by heat and canker develops on the southern side of the stem.

  • Protect from insulation and other injuries by white washing the main stem upto two meters from the ground level.

  • (11) Bark Bursts and Canker : 

  • Water oozes out through the wounds resulting in cankers.

  • Avoid injury and high water table sites.

  • Clean the wounds and apply Bordeaux paste or Emisan-6.


10. Inter-cropping : 

  • It is desirable to grow field crops as intercrops in block plantations of poplar.

  • All rabi and kharif crops can be grown during the first three years except paddy.

  • However, inter-cultivation of sugarcane is preferred for the first two years as it is more profitable.

  • Third year onwards cultivation of wheat, cabbage, chilly, tomato, barley, coriander, turmeric, ginger, strawberry, oats, berseem, sarson etc. can be raised throughout the rotation.

11. Rotation : 

  • The rotation followed is 5-6 years.

  • However, in order to attain the optimum growth, it is advisable to harvest the tree in the 6th year.★★★


12. Unit Cost / Investment cost, Financial Viability 

  • The total cost over a period of 6 years for raising one Ha of poplar plantation has been estimated as Rs. 1,52,900/- .

  • The detailed item wise unit cost and financial viability details are furnished in Annexure.


13. Harvesting and Utilization : 

  • The plants are ready for harvest in the 6th year when they attain a girth of about 75-90 cm.★★★

  • Marketing is done as standing trees or after felling and cutting into logs.

  • A large quantity of poplar wood is used for making match splints, plywood and block boards.

  • The wood is also good for making paper pulp and being light in weight is ideally suited for making packing cases.

  • White furniture made out of poplar wood is getting popular with people.

  • Poplar wood can be used for panelling and cupboards.

  • The wood is also being utilized by the sports goods industry and is also suitable for toy and pencil making.

14. Yield and Returns : 

  • Poplars have shown promising growth on agricultural land and raises productivity by producing pealable wood @ 20-25 M3/ha./Yr. in 6 years rotation.

  • Under good care, poplar can achieve 75 cm girth at breast height.

  • Good veneer quality logs suitable for match, plywood and wood panel industries are available from bole and lops & tops gives good quality pulpwood.

  • Under intensive management practices with adequate & timely inputs of fertilizers, irrigation and plant protection measures, the yield can be further improved upon.

  • Based on its wood density (750-960 Kg per cum) the average conservative estimate of wood production is about 3 Q per tree in a rotation of 6 year.

  • Assuming minimum price @ Rs.325/- per Q at the farm level, the farmer can get Rs.4,38,000/- over a period of 6 years.

  • Income from inter-crops will be additional which will vary depending upon the crop cultivated.

  • The returns will depend upon site quality, inputs, intensity of management, actual yield and ruling market prices at the time of harvest.


15. Margin Money : 

  • NABARD stipulates beneficiaries' contribution to the project cost in order to ensure his stake in the involvement.

  • Such margin money varies from 5% to 25% depending upon the type of investment and the class of borrowers.


16. Repayment Schedule: 

  • The entire loan amount with interest will be repaid at the end of 6th year from planting after harvesting the crops.

  • However, as there is no income generation during the entire rotation period of 6 years, the interest has to be deferred for these years.



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