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Cropping System Concepts (Agronomy) for Agri Exams

Cropping System Concepts 

  • Multiple Cropping: “The growing of more than one crop on the same land in one year”.

  • Types of multiple cropping:

(a) Intercropping

(b) Mixed cropping

(c) Sequential/non-overlapped cropping

(d) Relay/overlapped cropping

  • Intercropping :

    • Growing of two or more crops simultaneously in alternate rows or otherwise in the same area, where there is significant amount of inter crop competition

  • Advantages of Inter Cropping:

1. Greater stability of yield over different seasons,

2. Better use of growth resources

  • Disadvantages of Intercropping:

1. Yield decrease because of adverse competition effect

2. Allopathic effect

3. Creates obstruction in the free use of machines

  • Mixed cropping:

    • Cultivation of two or more than two crops simultaneously, on the same piece of land without any definite row pattern or fixed ratio.

    • Scientific study of mixed cropping was firstly done by La-Flitze in 1929.

    • Mixed cropping is commonly practiced in Dry land areas of India.

  • Sequential/non-overlapped cropping:

    • Growing of two or more crops in quick succession on the same piece of land in a farming year. e.g. Just after the harvest of Maize Potato is sown and just after digging of potato. Chili is sown.

  • Relay/overlapped cropping:

    • Relay planting is interring planting or inter sowing of seeds/seedlings of the succeeding crop before harvesting the preceding/maturing crop.

    • Generally 2nd crop is planted after the first crop has reach its reproductive stage of growth 

    • Example: Potato is planted before the harvest of Maize and Radish is sown before harvesting of Potato.

    • Paira (Bihar & WB) and Utera (MP) cropping are also referred as an example of relay cropping. 

    • Paira/Utera cropping means sowing of Lathyrus or Lentil before the harvest of rice in lowland area with an objective to use the residual moisture of rice field.

  • Multi-storeyed/Multitired/Multilevel Cropping:

    • Two or more than two crops of different heights cultivated simultaneously on the same field. It is generally practiced in Karnataka and Kerala e.g. Sugarcane + Mustard + Onion/Potato.

  • Parallel Cropping:

    • Such crops have different growth habits and zero competition to each other. e.g. Urd/Moong + Maize

  • Companion Cropping:

    • When the production of both inters crops is equal to that of its solid planting. e.g. Mustard/Potato/Onion + Sugarcane

  • Synergetic Cropping:

    • In this type of cropping, yield of both the crops are higher than their pure crops on unit area e.g. Sugarcane + Potato

(Source : Principles of Agronomy by Reddy and Reddy)

Model Bankable Projects For IBPS AFO - NABARD- FCI PREPARATION

Model Bankable Projects For IBPS AFO - NABARD- FCI PREPARATION  

Animal Husbandry

1.Dairy Farming

2.Cow Rearing

3.Poultry Broiler Farming

4.Poultry Layer

5.Sheep Farming

6.Automatic Milk Collection Stations

7.Bulk Milk Cooling Units

8. Pig Farming

9. Goat Farming

10. Lamb Fattening

11. Moringa Cultivation for Goat Feed

12. Shuttlecock Manufacturing Units


1. Vermicompost production Unit

Farm Mechanization

1.Rural Godown

2.Combine Harvester

3.Custom Hiring Centre


1. Fish Cold Storage

2.Composite Fish Culture

3.Culture of Panassius suchti

4.Intensive Fish Culture

5.Culture of Vennamei (White legged shrimp)

6.Culture of Vannamei Economics

7.Tilapia Fish Culture

8. Fish farming in wetlands

9. GIFT Tilapia culture

10. Integrated Fish cum Dairy

11. Integrated fish cum Poultry (Broiler)

12. Intensive fish culture Economics

13. Pangassius culture

14. RAS with Vegetable Farming

15. Spirulina cultivation

16. Trout Farming

Food processing

1.Milk Processing 10000 LPD

2. Small Scale Cashew Processing Unit

3. Medium Fruit and Vegetable Processing Unit

Plantation and Horticulture

1.Modern Nursery Unit

2.Cashewnut Cultivation

3.Citrus Cultivation

4.Coconut Cultivation

5.Gladiolus Cultivation

6.Bee Keeping

7.Kiwi Cultivation

8.Mango Cultivation

9.Mushroom Cultivation

10.Pomegranate Cultivation

11.Tea Plantation

Post Harvest Storage

1.Onion Storage Structures

Water Resources

1. Solar Pumpset Model

Soil Water and Crop Management

1. Azolla Cultivation

2. Organic Farming

Farmer producer organisation (FPO)

1. Business Model on Milk Collection Unit by FPO

2. Business Model on Vermicompost Units at FPO level

3. Custom Hiring Centre Model Project FPO Financing

4. Financing Model Input Supply and Aggregation of Agri produce at FPO level

5. Financing models for supporting Farmer Producers' Organisations — Approaches for credit appraisal and financing


1. Bamboo based Agroforestry

2. Eucalyptus based agroforestry

3. Poplar

4. Subabul based agroforestry

Other Agriculture Related Bankable Projects

1.Minor Irrigation ~ Drip Irrigation

2.Land Development ~ Reclaiming Sodic Water for Irrigation through Gypsum Chamber

3.Agricultural Engineering ~ Cold Storage For Plantation And Horticulture Produce

4.Forestry / Wasteland ~ Neem - A Versatile Tree

5.Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ~ Gloriosa superba

6.State specific projects ~ Drip Irrigation Litchi

7. Solar fencing

8. Protection Agriculture - Precision Farming

Source :

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