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Fundamentals of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Fundamentals of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 3(2+1)


  1. Importance of Biochemistry. 
  2. Properties of Water, pH and Buffer. Carbohydrate: Importance and classification. 
  3. Structures of Monosaccharides, Reducing and oxidizing properties of Monosaccharides, Mutarotation; 
  4. Structure of Disaccharides and Poly saccharides. 
  5. Lipid: Importance and classification; Structures and properties of fatty acids; storage lipids and membrane lipids. 
  6. Proteins: Importance of proteins and classification; Structures, titration and zwitterions nature of amino acids; Structural organization of proteins. 
  7. Enzymes: General properties; Classification; Mechanism of action; 
  8. Michaelis & Menten and Line Weaver Burk equation & plots; 
  9. Introduction to allosteric enzymes. 
  10. Nucleic acids: Importance and classification; 
  11. Structure of Nucleotides, A, B & Z DNA; 
  12. RNA: Types and Secondary & Tertiary structure. 
  13. Metabolism of carbohydrates: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Glyoxylate cycle, Electron transport chain.
  14. Metabolism of lipids: Beta oxidation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids. 
  15. Concepts and applications of plant biotechnology: Scope, organ culture, embryo culture, cell suspension culture, callus culture, anther culture, pollen culture and ovule culture and their applications; 
  16. Micro-propagation methods; 
  17. Organogenesis and embryogenesis, 
  18. Synthetic seeds and their significance; 
  19. Embryo rescue and its significance; 
  20. somatic hybridization and cybrids; 
  21. Somaclonal variation and its use in crop improvement; cryo-preservation; 
  22. Introduction to recombinant DNA methods: physical (Gene gun method), chemical (PEG mediated) and Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer methods; 
  23. Transgenics and its importance in crop improvement; 
  24. PCR techniques and its applications; RFLP, RAPD, SSR; 
  25. Marker Assisted Breeding in crop improvement; 
  26. Biotechnology regulations.


  1. Preparation of solution, pH & buffers, Qualitative tests of carbohydrates and amino acids. 
  2. Quantitative estimation of glucose/ proteins. 
  3. Titration methods for estimation of amino acids/lipids, Effect of pH, temperature and substrate concentration on enzyme action, Paper chromatography/ TLC demonstration for separation of amino acids/ Monosaccharides. 
  4. Sterilization techniques. 
  5. Composition of various tissue culture media and preparation of stock solutions for MS nutrient medium. 
  6. Callus induction from various explants.
  7.  Micro-propagation, hardening and acclimatization. 
  8. Demonstration on isolation of DNA. 
  9. Demonstration of gel electrophoresis techniques and DNA finger printing.

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