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Fundamentals of Soil Science

Fundamentals of Soil Science 3(2+1) 

  1. Soil as a natural body, 
  2. Pedological and edaphological concepts of soil; 
  3. Soil genesis: soil forming rocks and minerals; weathering, processes and factors of soil formation; 
  4. Soil Profile, components of soil; 
  5. Soil physical properties: soil-texture, structure, density and porosity, soil colour, consistency and plasticity; 
  6. Elementary knowledge of soil taxonomy classification and soils of India; 
  7. Soil water retention, movement and availability; 
  8. Soil air, composition, gaseous exchange, problem and plant
  9. Soil temperature; source, amount and flow of heat in soil; effect on plant growth, 
  10. Soil reaction-pH, soil acidity and alkalinity, buffering, effect of pH on nutrient availability; 
  11. Soil colloids - inorganic and organic; silicate clays: constitution and properties; sources of charge;
  12. Ion exchange, cation exchange capacity, base saturation; 
  13. Soil organic matter: composition, properties and its influence on soil properties; humic substances - nature and properties; 
  14. Soil organisms: macro and micro organisms, their beneficial and harmful effects; 
  15. Soil pollution - behaviour of pesticides and inorganic contaminants, prevention and mitigation of soil pollution. 


  1. Study of soil profile in field. 
  2. Study of soil sampling tools, 
  3. Collection of representative soil sample, its processing and storage. 
  4. Study of soil forming rocks and minerals. 
  5. Determination of soil density, moisture content and porosity. 
  6. Determination of soil texture by feel and Bouyoucos Methods. 
  7. Studies of capillary rise phenomenon of water in soil column and water movement in soil. 
  8. Determination of soil pH and electrical conductivity. 
  9. Determination of cation exchange capacity of soil. Study of soil map. 
  10. Determination of soil colour. 
  11. Demonstration of heat transfer in soil. 
  12. Estimation of organic matter content of soil.

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