Notice Board

Production Technology of Mango


Production Technology of Mango:


  • Mango is known as the king of fruits and has been cultivated in India for over 400 years.
  • India contributes approximately 56% of the total world mango production.
  • Major contributing states: Andhra Pradesh (highest production), Uttar Pradesh (largest area), Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Gujarat.

Climate and Soil Requirements:

  • Suitable Soils: Alluvial to lateritic soils, except black cotton soil with poor drainage.
  • Ideal Soil pH: Slightly acidic, not performing well in soils with a pH beyond 7.5.
  • Climatic Conditions: Tropical fruit, can be grown up to 1,100m above sea level.
  • Ideal Temperature: 24 to 27°C.
  • Rainfall: Between 25cm and 250cm.
  • Avoid high humidity, rain, or frost during flowering for optimal growth.


  • India has about 1,000 varieties, mostly arising from open pollination.
  • Commercial Varieties in Various States:
    • Andhra Pradesh: Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelum, Totapuri.
    • Bihar: Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Langra.
    • Gujarat: Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari, Langra.
    • Haryana: Chausa, Dashehari, Langra, Fazli.
    • Karnataka: Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelum, Mulgoa.
    • Others: Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.


  • Mangoes are available in India from March to mid-August.
  • Cultivar Characteristics: North Indian cultivars are alternate-bearers, while South Indian ones are generally regular-bearers.


  • Mango is a heterozygous, cross-pollinated crop with two types of varieties: polyembryonic (South India) and monoembryonic (North India).
  • Propagation Methods: lnarching, veneer and side grafting, epicotyl/stone grafting.

Planting Techniques:

  • Planting Systems: Square, rectangular, and hexagonal; square and rectangular are popular.
  • Spacing depends on variety vigour and cropping system.
  • Planting Season: June to September.
  • Pit Preparation: 1m x 1m x 1m size, filled with well-rotten farmyard manure.

High-Density Planting:

  • Amenable Varieties: Mango Amrapali in North India.
  • Spacing: 2.5m x 2.5m.
  • Techniques: Soil drenching with paclobutrazol, pruning for increased production per unit area.

After Care and Management:

  • Training and Pruning: Essential in the first few years for spacing branches.
  • Manuring and Fertilization: Nutritional requirements vary by region, soil type, and age.
  • Intercropping: Useful for checking weed growth and reducing nutrient losses. Examples include blackgram-wheat-mango and brinjal-onion-mango.


  • Young Plants: Regular watering is necessary.
  • Newly-planted Grafts: Approx. 30 litres of water per week.
  • Irrigation Increases Flowering: Crucial during preflowering phase and after fruits.

Post-Harvest Handling and Storage:

  • Grading: Mangoes are graded according to size.
  • Packaging: Bamboo baskets (50-100 fruits per basket), wooden boxes, or perforated cardboard boxes are used. Tissue paper or paper shavings provide cushioning.
  • Storage Methods:
    • Ideal Temperature: 5-16°C for different varieties.
    • Controlled atmospheric storage not commonly used for mangoes.
    • Waxing (3%) and hot-water treatment extend storage life.
    • Hydro-cooling at 12°-15°C for 2 weeks, then 1 week at ambient temperature.

Major Problems, Physiological Disorders, and Integrated Management Practices:

Physiological Disorders:

  • Alternate Bearing: Common in North Indian varieties. Treated with paclobutrazol (5g-10g/tree).
  • Mango Malformation: Affects productivity, common in Punjab, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa. Treated with deblossoming and NAA (200ppm).
  • Black Tip: Caused by smoke from brick-kilns. Controlled by increasing chimney height and borax spraying (0.6%).
  • Clustering (Jhumka): Caused by adverse climate in February-March. Low temperatures lead to the growth of fruitlets that do not develop fully.
  • Spongy Tissue: Specific to Alphonso mango. Caused by high temperature and post-harvest sunlight exposure. Prevention includes sod culture, mulching, and harvesting at three-fourths maturity.

Pest and Disease Management:

  • Mango Hopper: Control with phosalone (0.05%) or carbaryl (2 g/lit) or phosphamidon (1 ml/litre).
  • Nut Weevil: Maintain cleanliness, destroy adults in bark crevices, and spray Fenthion (0.1%).
  • Stem Borer: Use monocrotophos (36 WSC) padding and carbofuron (3G) for bore holes.
  • Fruit Fly: Expose pupae by ploughing, use Methyl Eugenol traps, and bury fallen fruits.
  • Powdery Mildew: Apply sulphur dust or wettable sulphur (0.2%) or Tridemorph (0.05%).
  • Anthracnose and Stalk and End Rot: Spray Mancozeb (0.2%) or Carbendezim (0.1%)​


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