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Production Technology of Date Palm


Production Technology of Date Palm:

  • Origin and Importance:
    • Originates from countries around the Persian Gulf.
    • Nutritive fruit rich in sugar and iron.
  • Climatic and Soil Requirements:
    • Ideal for areas with long hot summers and mild temperatures during flowering (February to April) and fruit ripening (May to August).
    • Temperature Range: 25-29°C during fruit ripening.
    • Soil Preference: Deep sandy loam, tolerates a wide range of soil conditions. Better water holding capacity and good drainage are desirable.
  • Cultivars:
    • Classified as early, mid, and late cultivars.
    • Halawy: Early variety with small, yellow fruits at maturity.
    • Khadrawy: Small to medium-sized fruits, light yellow at maturity.
    • Barhee: Mid to slightly late season cultivar with small to medium-sized, yellow fruits.
    • Zahidi: Mid-season cultivar, tolerant to rain and humidity.
    • Medjool: Late cultivar with large, broad, oblong-ovate fruits.
  • Propagation and Planting:
    • Propagation by seeds has a long juvenile phase (7-8 years for flowering).
    • Vegetative propagation through off-shoots is preferred for uniformity.
    • Planting Spacing: Varies from 4M – 9M, typically 6M to 8M.
  • Irrigation, Manuring, and Interculture:
    • Light and frequent irrigations immediately after planting.
    • Date palm is drought-tolerant and highly tolerant to saline water.
    • Fertilization: 50 kg of FYM, 600 g N, 100 g P, and 700 g K per palm.
    • Leaf pruning is done during June for better ventilation of bunches.
  • Pollination and Fruitset:
    • Hand pollination is practiced.
    • Fruit thinning is necessary to retain optimal fruit numbers per palm.
    • Spraying ethephon @ 200 ppm 10 – 30 days after fruitset enhances thinning, ripening, and sugar content.
  • Harvest, Yield, and Processing:
    • Harvest at 'doka stage' during June – August.
    • Post-harvest processing includes dipping in boiling water and dehydration to produce 'Chhuhara'.
  • Plant Protection:
    • Control of termites, rhinoceros beetle, red palm weevil, black headed caterpillar, and false smut.
    • Techniques include dusting BHC 10%, injecting Monocrotophos, and predator release.


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