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Propagation of Fruit Trees in India -NOTES

Propagation of Fruit Trees in India-NOTES

Propagation of Fruit Trees in India:

- Methods of Propagation:

    - Fruit trees can be propagated by sexual or asexual methods.

    - Sexual propagation involves the use of seeds that are produced by the fusion of male and female gametes.

    - Asexual propagation involves the use of vegetative parts such as stems, roots, leaves, buds, etc. that are capable of developing into new plants.

    - Some of the common asexual methods are cuttings, layering, grafting, budding, tissue culture, etc.

- Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Propagation:

    - Asexual propagation has some advantages over sexual propagation, such as:

        - It ensures the genetic uniformity and true-to-type nature of the progeny.

        - It enables the production of disease-free and virus-indexed planting material.

        - It allows the combination of desirable traits from different varieties or species.

        - It facilitates the early and high yield of fruits.

    - Asexual propagation also has some disadvantages, such as:

        - It requires skilled labour and specialized equipment.

        - It may result in the loss of vigour and adaptability of the plants.

        - It may increase the susceptibility of the plants to pests and diseases.

        - It may cause genetic erosion and loss of biodiversity.

- Factors Affecting the Success of Asexual Propagation:

    - The success of asexual propagation depends on various factors, such as:

        - The type and quality of the propagule.

        - The season and environment of propagation.

        - The rootstock and scion compatibility.

        - The method and technique of propagation.

        - The aftercare and management of the propagules.

- Examples of Asexual Propagation of Fruit Trees in India:

    - Some of the examples of asexual propagation of fruit trees in India are:

        - Mango is propagated by inarching, veneer grafting, softwood grafting, and epicotyl grafting.

        - Citrus is propagated by T-budding, patch budding, and chip budding.

        - Guava is propagated by air layering, cleft grafting, and softwood cuttings.

        - Banana is propagated by suckers, sword suckers, bits, and tissue culture.

        - Grapes is propagated by hardwood cuttings, greenwood cuttings, and tissue culture.

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