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Notes on 1. Introduction to Agronomy

Notes 1. Introduction to Agronomy

Source: Principle of Agronomy By S R Reddy


  • Agriculture is the most important human economic activity.
  • Agriculture is a biological process.
  • Primary products of agriculture are organic.
  • Agriculture's resource base includes land, water, and air.


  • Agriculture originates from Latin words 'ager' (soil) and 'culture' (cultivation).
  • Major crops in conventional agriculture: rice, wheat, maize, millets, groundnut, soybean.
  • Conventional agriculture leads to vulnerability to disease, herbivore predation, and soil erosion.


  • Agronomy comes from the Greek words 'agros' (field) and 'nomos' (manage).
  • Agronomy is a branch of agriculture focused on field crop production and soil management.
  • Agronomy combines sciences like biology, chemistry, ecology, soil science, plant physiology, and genetics.
  • Agronomy integrates physical, chemical, and biological knowledge for production systems.
  • Agronomists focus on crop production and field management for food, fiber, and feed production.
  • Agronomists should have knowledge in plant physiology, soil science, and plant protection.


  • A crop is a plant grown for food, fodder, fuel, or other economic purposes.
  • Crop plants are derived from wild progenitors through selection and breeding.
  • Crop classification includes cereals, legumes, oilseeds, fiber, forage, sugar, root, tuber, drug, plantation, condiments, spices, medicinal, and aromatic plants.
  • Cereals are the most important crops, occupying two-thirds of cultivated land.
  • Cereals provide over 50% of the world's energy and protein needs.
  • Cereals include wheat, rice, barley, rye, oats, maize, sorghum, millet.
  • Seed legumes (e.g., soybean, field bean, groundnut) are important for food production.
  • Root and tuber crops (e.g., potato, sweet potato, cassava) are significant in diet.

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