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Fundamentals of Horticulture : Syllabus, Class Notes

Syllabus of Fundamentals of Horticulture (NEW) 2(1+1)


  • Introduction to horticulture: definition, scope, importance and branches of horticulture
  • Classification of horticultural crops based on botanical, climatic and use criteria
  • Horticultural zones and regions of India and the world
  • Horticultural therapy and landscaping: concepts, principles and types
  • Propagation of horticultural crops: methods, advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual propagation
  • Nursery management: site selection, layout, structures and equipment, media preparation, irrigation, fertilization, pest and disease management, quality standards and certification
  • Cultivation practices of major fruit crops: mango, banana, citrus, guava, papaya, grapes, pomegranate, sapota, pineapple, jackfruit, ber, aonla, date palm, apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond, walnut, cherry, strawberry, kiwi, litchi, avocado, olive, etc.
  • Cultivation practices of major vegetable crops: tomato, brinjal, chilli, capsicum, okra, cucurbits, cole crops, root crops, leafy vegetables, bulb crops, peas, beans, etc.
  • Cultivation practices of major spice crops: black pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, coriander, fenugreek, fennel, cumin, etc.
  • Cultivation practices of major plantation crops: coconut, arecanut, oil palm, cashew, tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, etc.
  • Cultivation practices of major tuber crops: potato, sweet potato, tapioca, yam, colocasia, etc.
  • Cultivation practices of major flower crops: rose, jasmine, marigold, chrysanthemum, carnation, gerbera, orchids, gladiolus, tuberose, anthurium, etc.
  • Cultivation practices of major medicinal and aromatic crops: ashwagandha, aloe vera, isabgol, senna, stevia, mint, basil, lemongrass, citronella, palmarosa, etc.


  • Identification of horticultural crops and their botanical families
  • Identification and preparation of propagation materials and media
  • Demonstration of propagation methods: seed sowing, cutting, layering, grafting, budding, etc.
  • Preparation and maintenance of nursery beds and pots
  • Visit to horticultural nurseries and farms
  • Layout and planting of fruit orchards and vegetable gardens
  • Pruning and training of fruit trees and ornamental plants
  • Manuring and irrigation of horticultural crops
  • Pest and disease management of horticultural crops
  • Harvesting and post-harvest handling of horticultural produce
  • Preparation of value-added products from horticultural crops
  • Preparation of herbarium and project report


Notes on Introduction to Horticulture:

Definition of Horticulture:

  • Horticulture is the science and art of growing, processing, and marketing of fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, plantations, medicinal and aromatic plants.

Scope of Horticulture:

  • Horticulture is a diverse field encompassing a wide variety of crops and production systems.
  • It plays a significant role in:
  • Improving nutritional security
  • Income generation
  • Employment creation
  • Environmental protection
  • Aesthetic value enhancement of human life.

Importance of Horticulture:

  • Horticulture provides high-value crops that can:
  • Enhance farm profitability
  • Diversify agriculture
  • Boost exports
  • Improve human health due to the rich sources of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals in horticultural crops.
  • Contributes to:
  • Rural development
  • Poverty alleviation
  • Women empowerment
  • Social transformation.

Branches of Horticulture:

  • Horticulture branches based on the crops it deals with include:
  • Pomology: Cultivation of fruit crops.
  • Olericulture: Cultivation of vegetable crops.
  • Floriculture: Cultivation of flower crops.
  • Plantation crops: Cultivation of crops like coconut, arecanut, oil palm, cashew, tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, etc.
  • Spices crops: Cultivation of crops like black pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, chilli, coriander, etc.
  • Medicinal and aromatic crops: Cultivation of crops with medicinal and aromatic properties like isabgol, senna, opium poppy, periwinkle, coleus, ashwagandha, etc.
  • Post-harvest technology: Handling, processing, storage, packaging, marketing, and value addition of horticultural produce.
  • Plant propagation: Methods and techniques of multiplying plants.

Notes on Classification of Horticultural Crops:

Botanical Classification:

  • Horticultural crops can be classified based on botanical families, genera, and species.
  • Example classifications include:
  • Mango, cashew, and pistachio belong to the family Anacardiaceae.
  • Citrus, lime, and lemon belong to the family Rutaceae.
  • Apple, pear, and almond belong to the family Rosaceae.

Climatic Classification:

  • Horticultural crops can be classified based on their climatic requirements:
  • Tropical crops: Thrive in hot and humid conditions (e.g., banana, coconut, papaya).
  • Subtropical crops: Suitable for mild and moderate conditions (e.g., citrus, guava, grape).
  • Temperate crops: Flourish in cold and cool conditions (e.g., apple, pear, peach, plum).

Use Classification:

  • Horticultural crops can be classified based on their use and purpose:
  • Edible crops: Consumed as food (e.g., fruits, vegetables, nuts, spices).
  • Ornamental crops: Grown for beauty and decoration (e.g., flowers, foliage, bonsai).
  • Industrial crops: Grown for products used in industries (e.g., rubber, oil palm, coconut).
  • Medicinal crops: Grown for therapeutic properties (e.g., isabgol, senna, opium poppy).
  • Aromatic crops: Grown for fragrance and flavor (e.g., lemon grass, citronella, patchouli).

Notes on Horticultural Zones and Regions:

Horticultural Zones of India:

  • India has six major horticultural zones:
  • Temperate zone: Covers Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and parts of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • North-western subtropical zone: Includes Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
  • North-eastern subtropical zone: Encompasses Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, etc.
  • Central tropical zone: Covers Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal, and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
  • Southern tropical zone: Includes Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Coastal tropical humid zone: Encompasses Konkan, Goa, Kerala, and parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Orissa.

Horticultural Regions of the World:

  • Major horticultural regions worldwide:
  • Tropical region: Near the equator with hot and humid climate (e.g., banana, coconut, pineapple).
  • Subtropical region: Between the tropics and temperate zones with mild and moderate climate (e.g., citrus, grape, guava).
  • Temperate region: Between subtropical and polar zones with cold climate (e.g., apple, pear, peach).
  • Mediterranean region: Around the Mediterranean Sea and parts of California, Chile, South Africa, and Australia (e.g., olive, grape, citrus).
  • Arid and semi-arid region: Characterized by low rainfall, high temperature, and low humidity (e.g., date palm, cactus, aloe vera).

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