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 Unit 1: Introduction, History and Etiology 
Introduction, history and scope of pathology. Definitions. Etiology of the disease. Predisposing factors, intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for the disease. Physical agents, mechanical injuries. Heat, cold and decreased atmospheric pressure, light (photosensitization) UV light, microwaves, electricity, chemical agents-exogenous chemicals (toxin, poisons, drugs and food substances), endogenous chemicals (metabolites, cytolytic or inhibitory immune complexes, free radicles, oxidants) 

Unit 2: Haemodynamics Derangements, Degeneration and Necrosis 
Disturbances of circulation/haemodynamic derangements hyperaemia, ischaemia, haemorrhage, sludged blood, thrombosis, embolism, infarction, oedema and shock. Disturbances of cell metabolism – protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, pigment metabolism, pathological calcification / ossification. Apoptosis, necrosis, gangrene. Ultrastructural changes in cell organelles in haemodynamic derangements and cell metabolic disturbances. 

Unit 3: Inflammation and Healing 
Inflammation – definitions associated with inflammatory phenomenon, etiology of inflammation, cardinal signs, pathogenesis of inflammation, chemical mediators released from injured tissues and inflammatory cells. Cellular reponse in inflammation, structure and functions of cells associated with inflammation. Role of humoral and cell mediated defenses. Various classifications of inflammation. Healing, cellular regeneration capability of different body cells. Role of cells (macrophages, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells), extracellular matrix components and growth factors in healing. 

Unit 4: Immunopathology 
Immunopathology – anibody and cells, immuno-competence of foetus and new-born. Immune mediated tissue injury, hypersensitivity reactions- anaphylaxis, Arthus reaction, cyototoxic antibody reaction, immune complex disease, delayed hypersensitivity to chemicals, immunodeficiency diseases, defective immuno-competence, autoimmune diseases. 

Unit 5: Genetically Determined Diseases 
Genetic abnormalities, aberrations of chromosomes, mosaicisi, chimerism, anomalies in sex chromosomes and it autosomal chromosomes. Pathological states determined by one or more genes, lethal genes. 

Unit 6: Disturbances in Cell Growth and Oncology 
Disturbance in cell growth – aplasia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Neoplasms-growth, etiology, classification, morphology, and behaviour of the neoplasms, structure and biology of the tumor cell, tumor immunology, tissue response to tumors, spread of tumors, pathological features of various neoplasms. 

Unit 7: Post-mortem Diagnosis and Histopathological Techniques 
Post-mortem examination as a diagnostic tool. Post-mortem techniques for different species including poultry, post-mortem changes, lesions in various organs in different diseases, identification and interpretation of lesions, preparation of necropsy reports. Handling of necropsy in vetero-legal cases, collection, preservation and dispatch of materials for diagnosis. Fixation and processing of tissues for histopathology and histochemistry. Different staining techniques. Histochemistry and histoenzymology as diagnostic tools. Principles of electron microscopy, processing of tissue for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. 

Unit 8: Clinical Pathology 
Clinical laboratory examination of various biomaterials from different livestock species, complete blood counts, serum enzymology, bone marrow examination, erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelet disorders and their interpretations. Electrolyte and acid base analysis, altered electrolyte concentrations and their interpretations, fluid accumulation disorders, examination of effusions (chemistry and exfoliative cytology). Complete examination of urine, skin scrapings stools, CSF and milk for pathological constituents and interpretation of results. 

Unit 9: Systemic Pathology 
Pathology of cardiovascular, haemopoietic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, nervous and musculoskeletal systems, endocrine glands, organ of special senses i.e, eye, ear, skin, appendages. 

Unit 10: Pathology of Infectious Diseases 
Pathology of bacterial, mycotic, viral, mycoplasmal, rickettsial, chlamydial and parasitic diseases. Diseases caused by prions. 

Unit 11: Avian Pathology 
Farm placements and building in relation to disease, management and nutrition in relation to disease. Biosecurity in the control of diseases. Stress and its effects. Omphalitis and yolk sac infection, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, viral arthritis, infectious bursal disease, egg drop syndrome, inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome, infectious stunting syndrome, swollen head syndrome, Marek’s disease, avian leucosis/sarcoma complex, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, mycoplasmosis, chlamydiosis, colibacillosis, spirochaetosis, aspergillosis, thrush, mycotoxicosis, parasitic diseases – nematodes, cestodes and protozoa, nepherosis/nephritis syndrome, multi-etiology syndromes. Immunosuppression and conditions/diseases associated with it. Vaccinations against various diseases, their failures and remedies. 

Unit 12: Nutritional and Production Pathology 
Pathology of nutritional deficiency disease – protein, carbohydrate, mineral and vitamins. Concept of production diseases – pathology of milk fever, ketosis, magnesium tetany, rumen indigestion, nutritional haemoglobinuria. 

Unit 13: Pathology of Toxicosis 
Clinico-pathological features of toxicosis due to heavy meals, mycotoxins, insecticides, pesticides, toxic plants, chemicals and drugs. 

Unit 14: Pathology of Diseases of Laboratory and Wild Animals 
Etiopathology of common diseases of laboratory and wild animals.

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