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Unit 1: General Genetics and Plant Breeding
Mendelian inheritance. Cell structure and division, Linkage, its detection and estimation. Epistasis.
Gene concept, allelism and fine structure of gene. Extra chromosomal inheritance. DNA - structure,
function, replication and repair. Genetic code. Gene-enzyme relationship. Replication, Transcription
and Translation. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome
organization. Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms. Crop
domestication, evolution of crops and centres of diversity. Emergence of scientific plant breeding.
Objectives and accomplishments in plant breeding and the role of National and International institutes
. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Modes of sexual and asexual reproduction and its relation to plant
breeding methodology. Apomixes, incompatibility and male sterility systems and their use in plant
breeding. Epigenetics.

Unit 2: Economics Botany and Plant Breeding Methods
Origin, distribution, classification, description and botany of cereals (wheat, rice, maize, sorghum,
pearl millet, small millets); pulses (pigeonpea, chickpea, black gram, green gram, cowpea, soybean,
pea, lentil, horse gram, lab-lab, rice bean, lathyrus, lima bean; oilseeds (groundnut, sesamum, castor,
rapeseed mustard, sunflower, safflower, niger, linseed); fibre and sugar crops, fodder and green
manures; Breeding methods for self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and asexually propagated crops.
Combination, recombination and transgressive breeding. Single seed descent. Populations, their
improvement methods and maintenance, Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Ideotype
breeding. Mutation breeding, Concept of tree breeding. Speed breeding methods, Pre-breeding,
Reverse Breeding.

Unit 3: Genome Organization and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants
Chromosome number, structure, function and replication. Sex determination & sex linkage.
Recombination and crossing over. Molecular and cytological mechanism of crossing over.
Karyotype analysis.Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Cell cycle and its regulation. Banding
techniques. In situ hybridization. GISH and FISH Special types of chromosomes. Chromosomal
interchanges, inversions, duplications and deletions. Polyploids, haploids, aneuploids, their utility and
their meiotic behaviour. Wide hybridization and chromosomal manipulations for alien gene transfer.
Pre-and post- fertilization barriers in wide hybridization. Genome organization and Cytogenetics of
important crop species- wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, Brassica, groundnut, cotton, Vigna, potato and
sugarcane. Cytogenetic techniques for gene location and gene transfer, Construction and use of
molecular marker based chromosome maps.

Unit 4: Quantitative and Biometrical Genetics
Quantitative characters. Multiple factors inheritance. Genetic control of polygenic characters. Genetic
advance and types of selection their effects on population mean and variance. Metric characters under
natural selection. Repeatability and asymmetry of response. Breeding value. Dominance and
interaction deviations. Hardy Weinberg law and changes in gene frequency due to migration, mutation
and selection. Linkage disequilibrium. Genetic load. Polymorphism. Breeding value, heritability.
Response to selection, correlated response. Estimates of variance components and covariance
among relatives. Mating designs with random and inbred parents. Estimation of gene effects and
combining ability. Effects of linkage and epistasis on estimation of genetic parameters. Maternal effects.
Genotype-environment interactions, stability of performance and stability analysis. Heterosis and its
basis (Genetic, biochemical and physiological). Mating system and mating design-diallel, line X tester,
NC-I NC-II and NC-III designs, approaches to estimate and exploit components of self and cross
pollinated crops. . GGE biplot analysis, Principal component analysis, AMMI and GGI analysis.

Unit 5: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnological Tools in Plant Breeding
Somatic hybridization, micropropagation, somaclonal variation, in vitro mutagenesis. Anther culture.
Cryopreservation. Genetic and molecular markers, generation of molecular markers and their
application in genetic analyses and breeding. Molecular markers in genetic diversity analysis and
breeding for complex characters. Gene tagging, QTL mapping, MAS, MARS and MABB. Vectors.
DNA libraries, DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing. Nucleic acid hybridization and immunochemical
detection. Chromosome walking, Recombinant DNA technology, Gene cloning strategies. Gene
transfer methods. Artificial synthesis of gene. Genetic transformation, transgenics and cisgenics.
Antisense RNA, RNAi and micro RNA techniques in crop improvement. Genome editing using
CRISPER/cas, Genomic selection, RNA Seq analysis,

Unit 6: Plant Breeding for Stress Resistance and Nutritional Quality
Genetic and molecular basis and breeding for resistance to diseases and insect-pests. Breeding for
vertical and horizontal resistance to diseases. Genetic and physiological basis of abiotic stress
tolerance. Breeding for resistance to heat, frost, flood, drought and soil stresses. Important quality
parameters in various crops, their genetic basis and breeding for these traits. Role of molecular
markers in stress resistance breeding using biotechnological tools (MAS, MARS and MABB and
transgenics). Biofortification.

Unit 7: Plant Genetic Resources and their Regulatory System; Varietal Release and Seed Production
Plant exploration, germplasm introduction, exchange, conservation, evaluation and utilization of plant
genetic resources. Types of genetic resources. Centres of diversity of cultivated plants. Genetic erosion
and genetic vulnerability. Convention on Biological Diversity and International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture. Intellectual Property Rights and its different forms for protection
of plant genetic resources. Biodiversity Act. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act and
its features. System of variety release and notification. Types of seeds and seed chain. Maintenance
breeding- nucleus and breeder seed production. Seed production and certification.

Unit 8: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency, probability theory and its applications in genetics.
Probability distribution and tests of significance. Correlation, linear, partial and multiple regression.
Genetic divergence. Multivariate analysis. Designs of experiments - basic principles, completely
randomized design, randomized block design and split plot design. Complete and incomplete block
designs. Augmented design, Grid and honeycomb design. Hill plots, unreplicated evaluation. Data
collection and interpretation.

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