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Nanotechnology - Concepts, Techniques and Application

Nanotechnology - Concepts, Techniques and Application, Nano-particles, Nano-pesticides, Nano-fertilisers, Nano-sensors

Background of Nanotechnology:

  • Nanotechnology's origins date back 2000 years, with nanocrystals and gold nanoparticles used historically.
  • In 1959, Richard Feynman envisioned manipulating atoms and molecules.
  • The term " nanotechnology " was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974 .
  • Significant milestones include the development of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (1981) and the discovery of the Buckminsterfullerene (1985) .

Definition and Concepts:

  • Nanoscience studies materials at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scales .
  • Nanotechnologies involve controlling shape and size at the nanoscale.
  • The US National Nanotechnology Initiative defines it as the control of matter at dimensions of 1-100 nm.
  • Nanoparticles are ultrafine units with dimensions in nanometers.
  • Physical properties of nanoparticles include high mobility, large specific surface areas, and quantum effects.
  • Bottom-up and top-down approaches are used in nanotechnology.

Tools and Techniques:

  • Traditional techniques include characterizing particle size distribution and surface charge.
  • Advanced tools include Atomic Force Microscope and Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
  • Scanning probe microscopy techniques are crucial for both characterizing and synthesizing nanomaterials.
  • Nanolithography methods and molecular self-assembly techniques are also significant.
  • The bottom-up approach builds structures atom by atom, while top-down reduces bulk material to nanoscale patterns.
  • Dual polarisation interferometer measures molecular interactions at the nanoscale.

Applications and Development:

  • Nanotechnology's applications span various fields including medicine, engineer ing, and agriculture .
  • Properties of materials change significantly at the nanoscale, leading to unique applications.
  • Development of responsive nanomaterials for therapeutic products is ongoing.

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