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Production Technology of Apple


Production Technology of Apple (Malus pumila):

  • Climatic and Soil Requirements:
    • Essentially a temperate crop.
    • Altitude for subtropical zone: 1600 – 2500 M above MSL.
    • Chilling requirement: 1000 hours below 7°C for winter rest.
    • Soil: Well-drained, slightly acidic (pH 6.5 – 6.7), loamy soil with good depth.
  • Propagation:
    • Method: Whip and tongue method of grafting.
    • Rootstocks: Malus sylvestris, M. prunifolia, M. sikkimensis, or their hybrids.
  • Varieties:
    • Red Delicious: Midseason variety, large fruits, oblong conical, red streaks on skin.
    • Golden Delicious: Late variety, medium to large fruits, golden yellow skin.
    • McIntosh: Midseason variety, medium size, oblate round fruits.
  • Planting and Training:
    • Pits size: 60 x 60 x 60 cm, spacing: 5 M x 5M.
    • Training: Central leader, open centre, modified leader, cordon, dwarf pyramid, espalier, tatura trellis, Lincoln canopy.
  • Manuring and Fertilization:
    • Nutrient requirement: 500g N, 250g P, 750g K per tree.
    • Deficiency corrections: Calcium chloride for 'bitter pit', Sodium borate for Boron deficiency.
  • Pest and Disease Control:
    • Aphids: Control with organophosphorous insecticides.
    • Blossom thrips: Control with fenetrothion.
    • Red spider mites: Managed by integrated control with predators.
    • Apple scab: Managed by fungicide sprays.
    • Powdery mildew: Controlled with triadimephon or pyrazophos.


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