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Unit 1: Veterinary Gynaecology
 Biology of sex. Development of female genitalia.Functional anatomy of female reproductive system of farm animals.Growth, puberty and sexual maturity.Reproductive cycles (oestrous cycle) in female farm animals.Oogenesis and folliculogenesis.Follicular dynamics and ovulation.Transport and survival of gametes, fertilization, cleavage, implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy.Sex determination and differentiation, Development of foetus and foetal membranes.Period of embryo and period of fetus, Teratology of fetus, Placentaclassification and functions.Gestation and pregnancy diagnosis in farm animals. 

Unit 2 : Reproductive Endocrinology 
Reproductive hormones, classification, synthesis, chemical composition and mechanism of action. Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, gonadotropic, gonadal, placental and pineal gland hormones.Prostaglandins, pheromones, growth factors and hormone antagonists and their significance in animal reproduction. Hormonal assays. Hormonal regulation of male and female reproduction.Clinical uses of hormones. 

Unit 3 : Accidents during Gestation 
Pregnancy, Pseudocyesis, Ectopic pregnancy, Abnormalities of fertilization and foetal development, Superfecundation and superfetation. Abortion – bacterial, viral, mycotic, protozoal, physical, toxic and miscellaneous causes, diagnosis and prevention, Dropsy of foetal membrane and foetus, Maceration, mummification, Pyometra, Antepartum vagino-cervical prolapse, Uterine torsion and displacement of uterus. Retained fetal membranes. 

Unit 4 :Veterinary Obstetrics 
Pelvis and pelvimetry. Parturition – Signs approaching parturition, initiation and stages of parturition, induction of parturition and postpartum period. Presentation, position and posture.Causes and forms of dystocia and its treatment.Epidural anaestheia. Obstetrical maneuvers including fetotomy and Caesarean section. Post-partum complications in domestic animals, retention of placenta, uterine proplapse, endometritis, metritis, septic metritis. Post parturient metabolic disorders. 

Unit 5 :Andrology 
Comparative anatomy of male reproductive system. Thermoregulation of testis and blood testis barrier, Growth, puberty and sexual maturity.Spermatogenesis including cycle of somniferous epithelium and spermatogenic wave.Sperm morphology and ultra-structure of spermatozoa, sperm transport, maturation and storage in male genital tract, Secretions of male reproductive tract including accessory glands and their role in reproduction, Sexual/mating behaviour.Training of young bulls for semen collection, Semen and its composition, biochemistry of semen and sperm metabolism, sperm abnormalities and its classification, sperm separation and spermatozoa karyotyping. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls, testicular cytogram, routine semen analysis, advances in semen analysis techniques including fluorescent dyes. 

Unit 6 : Male Infertility 
Fertility, infertility and sterility in male domestic animals. Causes and forms of male infertility. Testicular hypoplasia, cryptorchid, testicular degeneration, orchitis, affections of epididymis, vas deference, penis, prepuce and accessory glands & their management, tumors of the male reproductive tract, nutritional infertility, Vices in the males. Libido problem and its management, fertility markers.Evaluation of male for breeding soundness, reproductive health status.Effect of parental drugs and vaccines on semen quality. 

Unit 7 : Frozen Semen Technology and Artificial Insemination 
History and development of artificial insemination. Advantages and disadvantages of AI and frozen semen, selection of bulls for AI purpose.Management of breeding bulls, methods of semen collection in different domestic animals, semen evaluation including latest techniques for evaluation of motility and fertilization.Ideal extenders, extenders for liquid semen.Preservation of semen at various temperatures.Processing and preservation of liquid semen.Extenders for frozen semen, principles and techniques of semen freezing. Cold shock and ultra-low temperature shock. Cryoprotectants.Semen additives.Evaluation of frozen semen.Transport and storage semen.Handling of frozen semen, Liquid nitrogen and its containers.Insemination techniques.Estrus and estrus detection tools, Planning and organization of semen bank. 

Unit 8 : Reproductive Technology 
Synchronization of oestrous cycle in domestic animals, control of ovulation. Embryo transfer technology – History, advantages and disadvantages, superovulation, collection, evaluation, preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos.History of in vitro maturation and fertilization.Recovery of oocytes in vitro and in vivo, maturation, fertilization, culture, evaluation, preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos.Micromanipulation of embryos.Embryo splitting and cloning. Stem cells and production of transgenic animals. Sex determination and gene insertion.Establishment of laboratory for ETT, IVM, IVF and IVC.Use of Ultrasonography, laparoscopy and ovum-pick technology in farm animals. 

Unit 9 : Infertility in Cows and Buffaloes 
Fertility, infertility and sterility. Fertility indices, Evaluation of herd fertility.Incidence and economic role of infertility, forms of infertility, congenital and hereditary defects, infectious diseases. Pathological conditions of ovary, oviduct, uterus, cervix and vulva. Management causes of infertility. Hormonal causes of infertility, anestrus, repeat breeding, cystic ovarian degeneration, sexual health control and reproductive health programmes. Breeding soundness examination of cows and buffaloes. 

Unit 10 : Reproduction and Infertility in Ovine/Caprine 
Puberty, sexual maturity, breeding season, oestrous cycle, Breeding and conception, gestation, parturition, periparturient and obstetrical complications. Synchronization of oestrous cycle.Embryo transfer.Causes of infertility and their management. 

Unit 11 : Reproduction and Infertility in Swine 
Oestrous cycle, synchronization of oestrous cycle, Hormonal control of reproduction. Various forms of infertility in swine and their management.Various obstetrical problems and their management. 

Unit 12 : Equine Reproduction 
Physiology and pathology of equine reproduction. Research techniques and methodology for the study of equine reproduction.Equine andrology.Reproductive behaviour and management of stallion.Semen collection, examination and artificial insemination. Pregnant mare behaviour. Application of modern reproductive techniques in equine reproduction.Equine infertility. 

Unit 13 : Canine and Feline Reproduction 
Functional anatomy of dog and cat reproductive system, oestrous cycle and endocrinology of oestrous cycle and detection of optimum breeding time. Exfoliative vaginal cytology.Methods of pregnancy diagnosis, contraception.Medical termination of pregnancy. Infertility in bitches, disorders of oestrous cycle, pseudopregnancy, pyometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, tumors of reproductive tract. Difficult whelping – types and methods of handling dystocia. Caesarean section.Ovarian hysterectomy.Peri-parturient complications.Semen collection, evaluation, techniques of artificial insemination, infertility in male including testicular tumors – cryptorchid, affections of prostate.

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