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Unit 1 
Scope of Biochemistry and molecular biology in animal sciences. Structural and functional organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, viruses and bacteriophages. Compartmentalization of metabolic processes within the cell and fractionation of subcellular components. Structure and functions of biomembranes with special reference to active transport of ions and metabolites. Chromatin structure. Molecular aspects of cell division and cell cycle. Cellular regulation, development and differentiation. pH, water, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, buffers, Extra and intracellular communication. 

Unit 2 
Structure and properties of biologically important carbohydrates including storage and structural polysaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, blood group substances, peptidoglycans and bacterial polysaccharides. Structure and properties of fatty acids, acyl glycerol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, sterols, bile acids and prostaglandins. Basic principles of isolation, estimation and analysis of carbohydrates and lipids. 

Unit 3
 Aminoacids, structure and properties. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Glycoproteins, lipoproteins, nucleoproteins, fibrous and globular proteins. Structure and functions of immunoglobulins, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Physical and chemical properties of proteins. Structure of different types of nucleic acids. Acid base properties, sedimentation behaviour, hyperchromic effect, base sequencing and restriction analysis of DNA. General description of cell culture, hybridoma and animal cloning techniques. Computer applications in molecular biology, primer designing, sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis. 

Unit 4 
Major classes of enzymes, general properties, kinetics and mechanism of their action. Activation energy and transition state. Coenzymes and cofactors. Regulation of enzyme activity and enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and enzymes of clinical significance. Applications and scope of enzymes in bioprocess technology and genetic engineering. 

Unit 5 
Bioenergetics, biological oxidation, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Citric acid cycle and ATP generation. Glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle,pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, cori cycle, glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Volatile fatty acids as source of energy in ruminants. Ketogenesis and cause of ketosis in ruminants. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. Catabolism of amino acids, transamination and determination, urea cycle. Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Conversion of amino acids into other bioactive compounds. Biosynthesis of nutritionally non-essential amino acids. Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. Disorders of lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism and scope of gene therapy in combating genetic disorders. 

Unit 6 
Mechanism of storage, transmissions and expression of genetic information. DNA replication and control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. RNA synthesis and factors regulating transcription. Biosynthesis of proteins. Features of genetic code in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Wobble hypothesis, post-translational modification, degeneracy and regulation of translation. Basic principles of recombinant DNA technology and its scope in animal health and production. Recombinant proteins and vaccines, safety, ethical issues and IPRs in molecular biology. 

Unit 7 
Fundamental principles of nutrition, nutritional requirements, balanced diet, nutritive value of foods, importance of dietary fiber, assessment of protein quality, deficiency diseases and metabolic disorders; diabetes, food toxins; Structure and metabolic functions of water soluble and lipid soluble vitamins. Trace elements and their role in biological processes. Deficiencies and nutritional significance of vitamins and trace elements in domestic animals and poultry, nutraceuticals & probiotics. General description of nature of hormones, receptors and mechanisms of their action. Feedback mechanisms. Metabolic function of different hormones and associated disorders due to hypo or hyper secretions of major endocrine glands viz. pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas and gonads. Growth factors and their role. 

Unit 8 
Blood composition and biochemical constituents of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets. Important plasma proteins and their functions. Haemoglobin in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Role of kidneys in acid base balance. Composition and metabolism of muscle, connective, tissue, cartilage, bone, nervous, tissue, adipose tissue and mammary tissue. Clinical significance of iron, iodine calcium and phosphorus metabolism in domestic animals and poultry. Biochemical tests for hepatic and renal functions. Urine composition and analysis. 

Unit 9 
Basic principles and use of latest photometric, chromatographic, electrophoretic and radioisotopic methods of biochemical analysis. Chromatography: partition, ion-exchanges, adsorption and affinity, TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, Gel Filtration and GLC. Electrophoresis: PAGE, SDG PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing; Blotting techniques; Electroblotting, Northern, Southern and Western blotting; Radiotracer techniques: beta and gamma emitters and their detection, solid and liquid counting, autoradiography and phosphor image analysis, isotope dilution technique; Binding assays: RIA and ELISA; Spectroscopy: UVvisible, fluorescence, ORD, CD, NMR, ESR and Mass; PCR & RT-PCR. Methods of isolation, purification and characterization of proteins, DNA and RNA. Basic principles of RIA, ELISA, PCR, RFLP and DNA fingerprinting NA probes, vectors, microarray, imaging, applications of nanotechnology, proteomics. Determination of enzymes, hormones, vitamins and other biochemical constituents with special reference to disease diagnosis in domestic animals. 

Unit 10 
Environmental pollution in relation to animal health and production. Biotechnology in pollution control. Biochemical basis of pollutant tolerance, host defence mechanisms including antigenic and non-antigenic interactions. Free radicals, carcinogenesis and role of liver and kidneys in detoxification. Oncogenes and mechanism of immunosuppression in cancer therapy and organ transplantation. 

Unit 11 
Overview of the immune system, cells and organs of immune system, Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecule, .generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and Tcellreceptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation,the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, cytokines, Hypersenstive reaction, autoimmunity and vaccines.

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