Notice Board


[NOTE: Section Bcomprising of 180 MCQs will contain questions fromeach of the Sub-subject listed under a Major Subject Group]

(2.1 Plant Pathology, 2.2 Nematology, 2.3 Agricultural Entomology/Entomology, 2.4 Agricultural Chemicals)


Unit 1: History and Principles of Plant Pathology
Milestones in phytopathology with particular reference to India. Major epidemics and their social impacts.Historical developments of chemicals, legislative, cultural and biological protection measures includingclassification of plant diseases. Physiologic specialization, Koch’s postulates. Growth, reproduction, survival anddispersal of plant pathogens. Factors influencing infection, colonization and development of symptoms.

Unit 2: Laboratory and Analytical Techniques
Preparation and sterilization of common media. Methods of isolation of pathogens and their identification.Preservation of microorganisms in pure culture. Methods of inoculation. Measurement of plant disease.Molecular detection of pathogens in seeds and other planting materials: Nucleic acid probes, Southern, Northernand Western hybridization, ELISA, ISEM and PCR. Laboratory equipment and their use: autoclave, hot air oven,laminar flow, spectrophotometer, electrophoresis, light and electron microscopy, incubator, ultracentrifuge,
ELISA Reader.

Unit 3: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology
Altered metabolism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis: elicitors,recognition phenomenon, penetration, invasion, primary disease determinant. Enzymes and toxins in relation toplant disease. Mechanisms of resistance, Structural and Biochemical defense mechanisms. R-Genes,Phytoanticipins. Phytoalexins. PR proteins, Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGP). Antiviral proteins. SAR and ISR. HR and active oxygen radicals. Tissue culture. Somaclonal variation and somatic hybridization.Elementary genetic engineering. Management of pathogens through satellite, antisense - RNA. Ribozymes, coat
protein, RNA interference, plantibodies, hypovirulence, cross protection. Useful genes and promoters, planttransformation techniques, biosafety and bioethics.

Unit 4: Mycology
Classification of fungi. Life cycles of important phytopathogenic fungi. Economic mycology, edible fungi andentomogenous fungi. Mycorrhizal associations. Cell organelles, their morphology, functions and chemical composition.

Unit 5: Plant Bacteriology
Identification and classification of bacteria. morphology, ultrastructure and chemical composition of prokaryoticcell in relation to function. Growth curve, nutrition and auxotrophic mutants. Resting cells in prokaryotic,elementary bacterial genetics and variability: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Biology of extrachromosomal elements: plasmid borne genes and their expression: avr, her, vie and pat genes. Bacteriophages:lytic and lysogenic cycles. Prokaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action. Economic uses of prokaryotes.Morphology, biochemical characteristics, reproduction and life cycle of phytoplasma and other fastidiousprokaryotes.

Unit 6: Plant Virology
Nature, composition and architecture of viruses and viroids. Properties of viruses. Variability in viruses. Satelliteviruses and satellite RNA. Assay of plant viruses including biological, physical, chemical, serological andmolecular methods. Conventional and biotechnological techniques used in detection and diagnosis. Behaviour ofviruses in plants including infection, replication and movement. Histopathological changes induced by viruses in plants, inclusion bodies. Transmission of viruses:virus - vector relationships. Nomenclature and classification ofviruses.

Unit 7: Plant Disease Epidemiology
Concepts in epidemiology. Development of disease in plant population. Monocyclic and polycyclic pathogens.Role of environment and meteorological factors in the development of plant disease epidemics. Survey,surveillance (including through remote sensing), and prediction and forecasting of diseases. Epidemic analysis and prediction models. Crop loss assessment: critical and multiple point models.

Unit 8: Phanerogamic Parasites and Non-parasitic Diseases
Diseases caused by Phanerogamic parasites and their management. Diseases due to unfavourable soil environment, drought and flooding stress etc. Nutritional deficiencies. Primary /secondary air pollutants and acid rain.

Unit 9: Fungal Diseases of Crop Plants
Fungal diseases of cereals, millets, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, vegetables, plantation, fiber, spices and ornamental crops with special reference to etiology, disease cycle, perpetuation, epidemiology and management. Postharvest diseases in transit and storage; aflatoxins and other mycotoxins and their integrated management.

Unit 10: Bacterial and Viral Diseases of Crop Plants
Crop diseases of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, plantation and fiber crops caused by bacteria,viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and other fastidious prokaryotes. Mode of transmission and pathogen vector relationships. Epidemiology and management.

Unit 11: Management of Plant diseases
General principles of plant quarantine. Exotic pathogens and pathogens introduced into India. Sanitary and phytosanitary issues under WTO, TRIPS and PRA. Genetic basis of disease resistance and pathogenicity: gene forgene hyphothesis; parasite mediated frequency -dependent selection concept of QTL mapping; breeding for disease resistance. Production of disease free seeds and planting materials. Seed certification. Chemical nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassay and compatibility with other agricultural chemicals; resistance to fungicides/ antibiotics; effect on environment. Spraying and dusting equipments, their care and maintenances. Important cultural practices and their role in disease management,  solarization,integrated disease management. Microorganisms antagonistic to plant pathogens in soil, rhizosphere and phyllosphere and their use in the control of plant diseases; soil fungistasis. Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. Biotechnology for crop disease management.


Unit 1: History and Economic Importance
History and economic importance of nematology; Diseases caused by plant-parasitic nematodessymptomatology, biology, distribution and management of plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance (Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Hirschmanniella, Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Globodera, Rotylenchulus, Tylenchulus, Ditylenchus, Anguina, Aphelenchoides, Tylenchorhynchus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Scutellonema, Paratylenchus, etc.). Entomopathogenic nematodes. Importance of saprophytes in organic matter recycling. Nematodes as indicators of pollution and toxicity. Predacious Nematodes.

Unit 2 : Nematode Taxonomy and Morphology
Principles and concepts of taxonomy. Rules of nomenclature. Nematode phylogeny and systematics.
Classification of soil and plant -parasitic nematodes and their relationships with other related phyla. Detailed classification of plant - parasitic nematodes up to generic level with emphasis on genera of economic importance. General morphology and anatomy of nematodes. Various systems: digestive,, excretory, nervous, reproductive etc., developmental biology of nematodes.

Unit 3 : Nematological Techniques
Methods of extraction of nematodes from soil and plant material. Microscopy - principles and types including electron microscopes. Methods of killing, fixing, preserving, staining, mounting and measuring of nematodes. Techniques for histopathology and culturing of nematodes - plant parasitic, entomophilic and saprophytic including axenic methods. Experimental techniques for proving pathogenicity, estimation of crop losses, nematicide screening, screening and evaluation for nematode resistance in crops. Molecular technique fornematode diagnostics. Techniques for mass culturing of entomopathogenic nematode antagonistic bioagents.

Unit 4 : Nematode Ecology
Ecological classification and distribution of nematodes. Mode of nematode dispersal. Adaptations to parasite mode of life. Soil as environment for nematodes. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on nematode survival, activity and reproduction. Nematode population dynamics. Nematode -induced plant damage and modelling.Community analysis.

Unit 5 : Plant Nematode Relationships
Types of parasitism in nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of plant parasitic nematodes and mechanisms involved. Pathotypes in nematodes. Mechanism of nematode resistance and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in plants due to nematode infections.

Unit 6 : Nematode Physiology and Cytology
Chemical composition of nematodes. Principles of nematode physiology. Physiological functions of cell; organelles. Physiology of respiration, digestion, excretion, reproduction, growth and development. Physiology of muscular, nervous and sensory responses. Physiology of moulting, hatching and nematode survival. Chemoreception in nematodes. Nematode as biological models - Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytological changes in plants due to infection including syncytia, giant cell formation and their modification etc.

Unit 7 : Nematode Management
Principles and methods of nematode management - physical, cultural biological, chemical and legislative, Nematicides (including those of biological origin) - history, classification, formulations, application and mode of action. Host resistance for nematode management. Integrated nematode management. Role of biotechnology in nematode management.

Unit 8 : Interactions of Nematodes with Soil Organisms
Importance of interactions (interrelationships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of nematodes with bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycorrhizae and other nematodes. Nematodes as vectors of viruses and other microorganisms.

Unit 9 : Statistics
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency and dispersion: mean, median, mode, standard deviation etc. Population distributions : normal, binomial and Poisson. Correlations: partial and multiple. Tests of significance: t, F and Chi square and randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs, their analysis and interpretation.


Unit 1: Systematics
History and development of Entomology, Evolution of insects, position of insects in the animal world,characteristics of phylum Arthropoda, structural features of important arthropod groups such as Trilobita,Chelicerata and Mandibulata, structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. Arachnida,Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Hexapoda. Classification of insects up to order level, habits, habitats and distinguishing features of different Order and important Families.

Unit 2: Morphology
Body wall, its structure, outgrowths, endoskeleton, Body regions, segmentation, sclerites and sutures, Insect Colors. Head and head appendages, types of mouth parts, antennae, their structure and types. Thorax structure,thoracic appendages and their modification. Wings, their modification and venation, Abdomen; structure, abdominal appendages both in Pterygota and Apterygota. External genitalia, general structure and modification in important insect orders.

Unit 3: Embryology, Internal Anatomy and Physiology
Embryonic and post embryonic development, types of metamorphosis, physiology of ecdysis. General features and types of larvae and pupae. Structure, function and physiology of Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Reproductive, Nervous and Excretory systems, Sense Organs; structure and types. Insect food and nutrition; minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, lipids, vitamins and their role in growth and development, artificial diets.

Unit 4: Ecology
Concept of ecology, Environment and its components-biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on growth,development, population dynamics, distribution and dispersal. Principle of biogeography and insects biodiversity. Assessment of diversity indices. Biotic potential and environmental resistance. Ecosystems, agroecosystems analysis, their characteristics and functioning. Intra and inter specific relationship; competition, predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, ecological niche. Life table studies, population models. Food chain and food web. Arthropod population monitoring, pest forecasting. Diapause and causes of pest out breaks.

Unit 5: Biological Control
Importance and scope of biological control, history of biological control: Biocontrol agents-parasites, predators and insect pathogens. Important entomophagous insect Orders and Families. Ecological, biological, taxonomic,legal and economic aspects of biological control, phenomena of multiple parasitism, hyperparasitism,superparasitism and their applied importance. Principles and procedures of using exotic biocontrol agents.Utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation, habitat management and augmentation. Mass multiplication techniques and economics. Effective evaluation techniques, Biocontrol organizations in world and India. Successful cases of biological control of pests. Use of biotechnological tools in enhancing the potentials of Bio-Control Agents.

Unit 6: Chemical Control and Toxicology
History, scope and principles of chemical control. Insecticides and their classification. Formulations of insecticides. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides. Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, chlordimeform, chitin synthesis inhibitors, avermectins, nitroguanidines, phenylpyrrozzoles, botanicals (natural pyrethroids, rotenone, neem products, nicotine, pongamia spp. etc). Chloronicotinyl, pyrozole, phenylpyrrozzoles, oxadiazines, benzamidazole, neristoxin, rodenticides, insect hormones, Insecticide induced resurgence. Combination insecticides. Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution. Safe
use of pesticides, precautions and first aid treatments. Insecticides Act 1968, registration and quality control of insecticides. Evaluation of toxicity, methods of toxicity testing, determination of LD 50, LT 50, RL 50 etc.Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements, methods of residue. Pharmacology of insect poisons. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides; neuroactive (axonal and synaptic) poisons, respiratory poisons, chitin synthesis inhibitors. Metabolism of insecticides; activative and degradative metabolism, detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. Selectivity of insecticidal actions; insecticide resistance; mechanism, genetics and management of insecticide resistance.

Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance
Chemical ecology: mechano- and chemoreceptors. Host plant selection by phytophagous insects. Secondary plant substances and their defenses against phytophagous insect. Basis of resistance (Antixenosis, Antobiosis, Tolerance). Biotypes development and its remedial measures. Tritrophic interactions, induced resistance. Breeding for insect resistant plant varieties. Resistance development and evaluation techniques. Genetics of Resistance: vertical resistance, horizontal resistance, oligogenic resistance, polygenic resistance. Biotechnological approaches and development of transgenic insect resistant plants, its advantages and limitations. Case histories. Insect resistance to transgenic plants and its management.

Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest Control
Behavioral control: pheromones-types and uses, advantages and limitations. Hormonal control: types and function of insect hormones, insect hormone mimics, advantages and limitations. chemosterilants, antifeedants, attractants, repellents; their types, method of applications, advantages and limitations. Genetic control: concepts and methods, case histories, advantages and limitations. Potentialities of IPM.

Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management
History, concept and principles of IPM. Components of IPM: Host plant resistance, agronomic manipulations,mechanical and physical methods, chemical methods, biocontrol agents utilization, genetic and behavioral control strategy etc. IPM strategies for field and horticultural crops. IPM case histories. Concept of damage levels- Economic threshold levels (ETL), Economic injury levels (EIL) and their determination. System approach, Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. IPM. Constraints and Strategies of IPM implementation. Plant quarantine laws and regulations.

Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments
Types of appliances: sprayers, dusters, fog generators, smoke generators, soil injecting guns, seed treating drums, flame throwers, etc. Power operated sprayers and dusters. Types of nozzles and their uses. Maintenance of appliances. Aerial application of pesticides, principles of aerial application, factors affecting the effectiveness of aerial application. Equipments for aerial applications. Advantages and disadvantages of aerial application.

Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of cereals, Oilseed, pulses and fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco. Polyphagous pests: locusts, termites, hairy catepillars, cut worms and white grubs.

Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of vegetables, fruits and plantation crops, spices, condiments and ornamentals, Vertebrate Pests.

Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management
Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. Storage losses, sources of infestation/infection, factors influencing losses, insect and non-insect pests, their nature of damage and control. Microflora in storage environment and their control. Storage structures, bulk storage and bag storage, their relative efficacy and demerits. Grain drying methods and aeration. Non-insect pests (rodents, birds, mites) of stored products and their control. Regulated and quarantine pests. Integrated management of storage pests.

Unit 14: Arthropod Vectors of Plant Diseases
Common arthropod vectors viz., aphids, leaf hoppers, plant hoppers, whiteflies, thrips, psylids, beetles, weevils, flies, bees and mites and their relationship with the plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma. Mechanism of pathogen transmission : Active mechanical transmission, biological transmission. Toxicogenic insects, mites and phytotoxemia. Some important arthropod vector transmitted diseases and their epidemiology in India. Management of vector and its effect on control of diseases.

Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping
Honey bees and their economic importance. Bee species, their behaviour, habit and habitats. Bee Keeping: bee pasturage, hives and equipments, seasonal management. Bee enemies including diseases and their control.

Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture
Silkworm species, their systematic position and salient features. Rearing techniques of mulberry - muga, eri and tassar silkworms. Nutritional requirements of silkworms. Sericulture: rearing house and appliances, silkworm breeds, principles of voltism and nioultism, seed production and its economics. Different molecular approaches in developing silkworm breeds. Silkworm genomics- a model genetic system- transgenic silkworm- production of foreign proteins. Mulberry pests, diseases and their management. By products of sericulture and its value addition, uses in pharmaceutical industry. Enemies and diseases of silkworms and their management. Sericulture organization in India.

Unit 17: Lac Insect
Lac insect, its biology, habit and habitats. Host Trees: pruning, inoculation, lac cropping techniques, and harvesting. Enemies of lac insect and their control.

Unit 18:Other Useful Insects
Pollinators, biocontrol agents of weeds, soil fertility improving agents, scavengers. Use of insects and insect products in medicines. Usefulness of insects in scientific investigations, insects as food.

Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application
Frequency distribution, mean, mode and median. Standard, normal, bionomial and Poisson’s distribution, Sampling methods and standard errors. Correlation and regression: Partial and multiple, tests of significance; t, F, chi- square, Duncan’s multiple range tests. Design of experiments: Principles of Randomized block design, Completely randomized block design, Latin square design, Split-plot designs. Probit analysis. Use of software packages like SPSS, SAS, etc. for the above tests and designs of experiments for analysis.


Unit 1: General Chemistry
Surface chemistry, pH, Buffer solutions; Redox reactions, Chemical kinetics, Stereochemistry and chirality,diastereoisomerism, tautomerism, atropisomerism, asymmetric synthesis, nomenclature of organic molecules, displacement, elimination, addition, rearrangement, SN1 and SN2 reactions, reaction involving free radicals, and carbene intermediates, Organic reagents and catalysts in organic synthesis,. Beckmann, Claisen condensation, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction, Petrno-Buchi reaction, Curlius, Michael, Kolbes, Arndt-Eistert and Wittig reaction. Reformatsky reaction., Barton reaction, Umpolung reaction, Norrish Type I & II reactions.

Unit 2: Chromatography and Spectroscopic Techniques
Basic principles and application of chromatography; column, paper, thin layer, and ion exchange
chromatography; gas liquid chromatography (GLC); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); UV, FTIR; NMR and mass spectroscopy; GC-MS and LC-MS techniques and their applications.

Unit 3: Chemistry of Natural Products
Extraction of natural products; Classification, structure, chemistry, properties and function of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, nucleic acids, vitamins, lipids, and polymers. Chemisty of terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics, plant pigments, steroidal and triterpenic saponins and sapogenins; juvenile and moulting hormones; Plant derived nutraceuticals; Chemistry of natural antioxidants and food colorants and their application in human and crop health. Biosynthetic pathways of natural products.

Unit 4 : Naturally Occurring Insecticides
Natural pyrethroids, nicotine, rotenone, neem and karanj based botanical pesticides; microbial macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins), agricultural antibiotics, semiochemicals; insect pheromones-types and uses, insect hormones, insect growth regulators; Plant hormones, phytoalexins, essential oils and their pest control
properties; advantages and limitations of natural pesticides; juvenile hormones, juvenile hormone mimics and anti-JH; chemosterilants, insect antifeedants, insect attractants and repellents; microbial pesticides; Application of plant biotechnology in crop protection, herbicide tolerant and insect resistant transgenic plants.

Unit 5: Synthetic Insecticides, Fungicides, Nematicides and Rodenticides
History, scope and principles of chemical insect control; Insecticides and their classification Chemistry of major groups of insecticides (organo-chlorine, organo-phosphorus, organo-carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids,neonicotinoids), fungicides (inorganics, dithiocarbamates, OP’s, phenols, quinines, carboxamides, azoles, methoxyacrylates), rodenticides, Insect growth regulators; Chitin synthesis inhibitors, insecticide synergists, fumigants. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides, fungicides and nematicides.

Unit 6: Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators
Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of herbicides (pheoxyacids, carbamates,amides, tiazines, phenyl ureas, dinitroanilines, bipyridiliums, sulfonyl ureas), Herbicide safeners, Plant growth regulators – auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid; Brassinolides; Mode of action of different groups of herbicides.

Unit 7: Agrochemical Formulations
Basic concepts of pesticide formulation - classification, solid and liquid formulations; preparation, properties,uses; controlled release formulations; Formulants - carriers/ diluents, surfactants, encapsulants, binders, antioxidants, stabilizers; Application - devices and quality of deposits; Types of spray appliances, seed treatment and dressing; nanotechnology in crop protection, Tools to develop and measure nanoparticles.

Unit 8: Pesticide Residues and their Dynamics in the Environment
Pesticide residues- concepts and toxicological significance; pesticide dynamics in agro ecosystem, biotic and abiotic transformations affecting fate of pesticides. Experimental design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates; Application of ELISA and radiotracer techniques in pesticide residue analysis; new cleanup techniques, QUECHERS, ASE (Accelerated solvent extraction); Multi-residue methods; Bound and conjugated residues; Method validation - linearity, LOD and LOQ, microbial and photochemical degradation, adsorption/ desorption, leaching in soil.

Unit 9: Agrochemicals – Regulation and Quality Control
Production, consumption and trade statistics of pesticides and fertilizers; banned and restricted pesticides, registration and quality control of insecticides; Laws, Acts and Rules governing registration and regulations of agrochemical production and use; key provisions of the Insecticides Act (1968), Environmental Protection Act (1986). Pesticide Management Bill, EPA, Food Safety and Standards Act, WHO, FAO, CODEX and national/international guidelines; Quality Control, Sanitary/phyto-sanitary issues in relation to food safety, good
laboratory practices, Accreditation certificate, Pesticide stewardship.

Unit 10: Natural Resource Management
Soil, plant and microbial biodiversity, Characteristics and classification of natural resources; Major soil groups of India their characteristics, management strategies for natural resources; integrated pest and pesticide management; Essential plant nutrients (major, secondary and micro), organic manures (farm yard, compost, sewage sludge, green manure, biogas slurries, etc); production and manufacture and uses of various nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures, liquid fertilizers, biofertilizers, integrated plant nutrient systems; benefits, disadvantages and environmental toxicity. Nitrification inhibitors to enhance nitrogen use efficiency, Hydrogels and their application in agriculture, soil conditioners and amendments, toxicity issues.

Unit 11: Environment Pollution: Implications and Remediation
Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution; Adverse effects of pesticides on micro-flora, fauna and on other non-target organisms; Effect of pesticide on soil health, persistent organic pollutants, and their effect on ecosystem. Adverse effect of industrial effluent on the soil and aquatic environment; disposal of obsolete and outdated pesticides; physical, chemical and microbial decontamination and detoxification of pesticides. Agrochemicals and homeland security, misuse of agrochemicals (pesticides and fertilizers), hazard mitigation plans or strategies, analytical and bioassay techniques to assess off-farm migration of agrochemicals into natural waters, ozone depletion causing agrochemicals

Unit 12: Data Analysis
Methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation, standard error, accuracy and precision, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and regression; t-test, chi-square (X2), F test, Probit analysis.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Thank You for feedback. Keep commenting on it.

Offer: Join BAO 2024 Paper 2, Get 50% Off. Hurry up! Limited time offer.

Introduction to Agrimly

Blinking Image

Popular Posts

Subjects Wise Information